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California. Dept. of Fish and GAme. 
Biennial Report 1948-1950. 



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California. Dept. of Fish and Gaji:e, 
Biennial Report 1948-1950. 



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California. Dept. of Fish and 
Game. 
Biennial Reoort 1948-1950. 



(bound volume) 




California Resources Agency Library 

1416 9th Street, Room 117 

Sacramento, California 95814 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA 
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

WARREN T. HANNUM, Director 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 

OF THE 

DIVISION OF FISH AND GAME 

FOR THE YEARS 1948-1950 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 
LETTER OP TRANSMITTAL 7 

REPORTS 

Fish and Game Commission 9 

Executive Officer 17 

Bureau of Game Conservation 24 

Bureau of Marine Fisheries 39 

Bureau of Licenses 67 

Bureau of Fish Conservation 72 

Bureau of Patrol and Law Enforcement 113 

APPENDICES 

A. Statements of Revenue and Expenditure 116 

B. Game Statistics 121 

C. Marine Fisheries Statistics 125 

D. Fish Distribution and Rescue 128 

E. Arrests, Fines and Seizures 137 



(3) 





Warren T. Hannum 

DIRECTOR OF NATURAL RESOURCES 



Harvey E. Hastain 

PRESIDENT, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 






Lee F. Payne 

COMMISSIONER 



Edwin L. Carty 

COMMISSIONER 



William J. Silva 

COMMISSIONER 








Paul Denny 

COMMISSIONER 



E. L. Macaulay 

EXECUTIVE OFFICER 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

July 1, 1950 
To PIis Excellency, Earl Warren 
Governor of the State of California 
Sacramento, California 

Sir: We, the members of the Fish and Game Commission, respect- 
fully submit the Forty-first Biennial Report, covering the period July 1, 
1948, through June 30, 1950. 

The report contains a resume of the activities of the Fish and Game 
Commission ; an account by the executive officer ; and detailed reports 
on the functions of the various bureaus by their respective chiefs. There 
also are included complete fiscal statements and tabulations on fish and 
game management. 

Respectfully submitted, 

California Fish and Game Commission 
Harvey E. Hastain, President 
Lee F. Payne 
Paul Denny 
Edwin L. Carty 
William J. Silva 



(7) 



REPORT OF THE FISH AND GAME 
COMMISSION 

At the start of this bienniuni, the members of the California Fish 
and Game Commission were : 

Harvey E. Hastain, President Brawley 

William J. Silva Modesto 

Lee F. Payne Los Angeles 

Paul Denny Etna 

Edwin L. Carty Oxnard 

Following the expiration of their terms in office, the Governor 
reappointed : 

Edwin L. Carty, on Jannary 21, 1949 
William J. Silva, on Febiaiary 8, 1950 

Mr. Silva Avas president for the period from Jannary 15, 1949, to 
January 27, 1950, and was foJluwed by Mr. Hastain on January 27, 1950. 

At the close of the biennium, the membership of the commission was 
as follows : 

Harvey E. Hastain, President Term expires 1951 

Lee F. Payne Term expires 1952 

Paul Denny Term expires 1953 

Edwin L. Carty Term expires 1955 

William J. Silva Term expires 1956 

E. L. Macaulay continued as executive officer of the commission 
during the biennium. 

LEGISLATION 

The Legislature, during the 1949 session, made several changes in 
the act granting regulatory powers to the commission (see Chapter 1045) , 
requiring that : 

(1) two meetings must be held each year during January; at the 
first meeting the commission shall receive recommendations as to seasons, 
bag and possession limits for the taking of all kinds of game and sport 
fish ; at the second meeting, the commission is to determine regulations, 
and, within 10 days thereafter must make public announcement of orders 
establishing such regulations for the ensuing seasons on fishing and 
hunting. These meetings are to be held alternately in San Francisco and 
Los Angeles; 

(2) the commission hold scheduled open hearings in any area in 
which the taking of female deer has been proposed ; 

(3) the commission hold scheduled open hearings in any area in 
which the opening of a game refuge has been proposed ; 

(4) all orders and regulations of the commission are to be com- 
piled, printed and distributed, with copies to "be mailed to each district 
attorney, county clerk, and justice of the peace throughout the State." 

(9) 



& 



lU FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

The act was extended for another two-year period. 

Another act reqnired that, in lieu of payment of annual taxes, the 
coiuniission must reimburse counties, annuall}', an amount equal to the 
taxes assessed against such property as purchased at the time the land is 
acquired and used for public shooting grounds. (Chapter 1046, Stats. 
1949.) 

In the future, all liunting and fishing licenses sliall have attached 
thereto the number of shipping tags, as permitted by the commission ; 
such tags will permit the licensee to ship by common carrier only limited 
quantities of fish or game. 

The fee for a nonresident hunting license was increased to $25; the 
fee for a nonresident deer tag to $10 ; the fee for a noncitizen hunting 
license to $50 ; the fee for a nonresident sport fishing license to $10 ; and 
the fee for a noncitizen sport fishing license to $25. 

The use of pheasant license tags was re-established, with a fee of $1 
for the same number of tags as the number of pheasants a hunter might 
legally possess. 

Probably the most outstanding legislation was the act establishing 
"Cooperative Hunting Areas," which should lead to more friendly 
relationships between property owner, sportsman, and commission. The 
owner supplies the land at no fee, the commission releases pheasants and 
supervises and patrols each area, the sportsman has hunting privileges 
at a fee not to exceed $2 per clay. 

Several chapters were added to the State Water Code all relating 
to pollution and its correction. A State Water Pollution Control Board 
and nine regional water control boards were created, members were 
appointed by the Governor, their powers and duties defined, and other 
state agencies concerned with the beneficial uses of water were instructed 
as to their parts in the over-all program. 

This act provides the means for coordinating the actions of the 
various state agencies and political subdivisions in the control of water 
pollution, and for enforcing correction of conditions which are dangerous 
to iniblic health, recreation and the best interests of the State. 

Another valuable and much needed act was that defining the offshore 
boundaries of the State. (Government Code, Chap. 65, Stats. 1949.) 

WILDLIFE CONSERVATION BOARD PROJECTS 

By the close of the biennium. tlie Wildlife Conservation Board had 
allocated over $8,500,000 to 73 projects. The survey of these projects 
which follows is taken from "California's Fish and Game Program" 
(1950), a report prepared by Seth Gordon, consultant to the board. 



SUMMARY OF APPROVED PROJECTS 

Fish Hiitchery and Stockins Projects (18) $2,833,900 

Warmwater and Other Fish Projects (6) 164,.500 

Flow Maintenance and Stream Improvement Projects (14) 4.50,000 

Screen and Ladder Projects (14) 352,140 

State Game Farm Projects (4) 106,000 

Other Upland Game Projects (4) 443,150 

Waterfowl Management Projects (9) 1 4,177,376 

General Projects (4) ^ 65,000 

Total (78 projects) $8,592,066 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



11 



FISH HATCHERY AND STOCKING PROJECTS 



Name, Location and Sponsor 

1. Black Hock Renriiu/ I'oiuls; Inyo 

County, near Independence ; Div. 
of Fish and Game. I'roject No. .30. 

2. Cedar Creek Hafcheii/: Mendorinn 

Co., near Cummings ; Div. of Fish 
and Game. Project No. 29. 



3. Crystal Lake Hatchery; Shasta Co., 

near Cassel ; Div. of Fish and 
Game. Project No. 22. 

4. Darrah Springs Hatchery; Shasta 

Co., site tributary to N. Fork of 
Battle Creelc; Div. of Fish and 
Game. Project No. 23. 

5. Deep Creek Stocking Trails (Little 

Bear Creek and Mojave Camp- 
ground); San Bdo. Co., San P>do. 
Natl. Forest ; Inland F. & G. Cons. 
Assn. Project No. 2. 

6. Experimental Pond Construction : 

state-wide; Div. of Fish and 
Game. Project No. G(j. 

7. Fillmore Hatchery; Ventura Co., 

approx. one mile from Fillmore ; 
Div. of Fish and Game. Project 
No. 38. 

8. Fish Springs Rearing Ponds: Inyo 

Co., between Independence and 
Bispine on Hwy. 395 ; Div. of Fish 
and Game. Project No. 37. 

9. Glenn-Colusa Hatchery; Glenn or 

Colusa Co. ; Item 245 from 1947- 
48 Budget. Project No. 65. 

10. Kern River Hatchery; Kern Co., 

six miles north of Kernville ; Div. 
of Fish and Game. Project No. 33. 

11. Moccasin Creek Hatchery ; Tuolumne 

Co., near junction of Hwys. 49 
and 120 ; Tuolumne Co. Fish and 
Game Assn. Project No. 17. 
J2. Mojave Hatchery; San Bdo. Co., 
near Victorville ; Div. of Fish and 
Game and Inland Fish and Game 
Conservation Assn. Project No. 39. 

13. Moorehouse Springs Hatchery ; Tu- 

lare Co., near Springville, Div. of 
Fi.sh and Game. Project No. 64. 

14. Mt. Shasta Hatchery; Siskiyou Co.. 

near Mt. Shasta City ; Div. of 
Fish and Game. Project No. 21. 

15. San Gabriel Hatchery; Los Angeles 

Co., 2 miles north of Pico ; Div. of 
Fish and Game. Project No. 40. 
(Formerly listed as Whittier 
Hatchery.) 



Description 

New housing facilities and plant improve- 
ments. Operated in conjunction with 
Mt. Whitney Hatchery. Est. produc- 
tion 400,000 catchable trout. 

lldqtrs. for coastal stream clearance and 
improvement, also fish rescue opera- 
tions. Incidental pi-oduction may be 
10,000 catchable trout and 750,000 
fingerlings. 

New plant, partly completed. Est. pro- 
duction 72,000 lbs., 450,000 catchable, 
75,000 fingerlings. 

New hatchery plant. Est. production 
120,000 lbs., 1,800,000 catchable. An 
exceptional site for efficient operation. 

Access trails for fish stocking purposes 
only. 



Estal)lishing experimental ponds for test 
purposes. 

New well and pump to permit plant to 
operate during drought periods. Est. 
production 90,000 lbs., 1,400,000 catch- 
able. 

New installation. Est. production 80,000 
lbs., 1,000,000 catchable. 



Project held in abeyance pending further 
investigation and development at Dar- 
rah Springs. 

Expansion of former plant. Est. produc- 
tion 40,000 lbs., 300,000 catchable, 
50,000 fingerlings. 

New plant. A suitable site, but involving 
difficult engineering problems. Est. pro- 
duction 80,000 lbs., 1,000,000 catch- 
able, 150,000 fingerlings. 

New plant with exceptional growth of 
trout possible. Est. ultimate produc- 
tion 120,000 lbs., 1,800,000 catchable. 

New plant. Est. production 20,000 lbs., 
120,000 catchable. 

Rehabilitation of entire plant. Est. pro- 
duction .50,000 lbs., 800,000 catchable, 
2,500,000 fingerlings. 

New installation. Est. production 90,000 
lbs., 1,400,000 catchable. Size of devel- 
opment will depend upon progress 
made at Mojave Hatchery. 



12 



FISH AND GA:ME COMMIi^SION 



FISH HATCHERY AND STOCKING PROJECTS— Continued 



Name, Location and Sponsor 
IG. San Joaquin Hatchery ; Fresno Co., 
downstream from Friant Dam ; 
Sportsmen's Council of Central 
Cal. and Div. of Fish and Game. 
Project No. 19. 

17. Tahoe Hatchery ; Placer Co., one 
mile north of Tahoe City ; Div. of 
Fish and Game. Project No. 25. 



IS. Tide River Hatchenj ; Tulare Co., 
near Camp Wishon ; Sportsmen's 
Council of Central Cal. and Div. 
of Fish and Game. Project No. 18. 

10. Willow .Creek Hatchery; Lassen 
Co., north and east of Susanville ; 
Div. of Fish and Game. Project 
No. 68. 



Description 
New plant ; excellent site. Est. produc- 
tion (iO.OOO lbs.. 900,000 catchable, 
120,000 fingerlings. 



Consolidation of Tallac with Tahoe 
Hatchery and expansion of present 
plant. When completed est. produc- 
tion 75,000 lbs., 800,000 catchable, 
200,000 fingerlings. 

New installation. Est. production 40,000 
lbs., 600,000 catchable. 



Proposed new plant. Est. production 
70,000 lbs., 1.000.000 catchable. 1,- 
500,000 fingerlings. 



WARMWATER AND OTHER FISH PROJECTS 



Name, Location and Sponsor 

1. Coachella Valley Public Fishing 

Areas; Riverside Co., near Cities 
of Indio, Coachella, Mecca and 
Thermal ; Coachella Valley Wild 
Game Propagation Club. Project 
No. 74. 

2. Linda Lake Puilic Fishing Area: 

San Diego Co., east of Lakeside ; 
Div. of Fish and Game at request 
of Co. Depts. of Public Works and 
Recreation. Project No. 77. 

3. Ramer Lake Public Fishing Area; 

Imperial Co., near Calipatria, on 
property already owned by Div. of 
Fish and Game ; Imperial Co. 
Fish and Game Assn. Project 
No. 72. 

4. San Antonio Creek Public Fishing 

Area; Santa Barbara Co., in the 
Camp Cooke Military Reserva- 
tion ; Santa Maria Valley Sports- 
man's Assn. Project No. 86. 

5. San Diego River Development Pro- 

gram ; San Diego Co. ; San Diego 
Co. Federated Sportsmen. Proj- 
ect No. 57. 

6. Shasta River Fish Counting Dam: 

Siskiyou Co., near junction of 
Shasta and Klamath Rivers ; Div. 
of Fish and Game. Project No. 61. 



Description 

Three or four warmwater fishing ponds 
or lakes in natural basins or eroded 
areas. Sites made available without 
cost to State. 



Drilling well to restore water to dry 
lake bed ; also deepening lake, approx. 
15 acres in area. 



Development of warmwater fishing lake 
by constr. of proper dike and deepening 
to provide approx. 275-acre lake on 
N. side Alamo River. 



Creation of a warmwater fishing lake 
by constr. of a dam in San Antonio 
Creek Canyon. (Originally submitted 
as a waterfowl project.) 

Development of warmwater fishing ponds 
in former sand and gravel pits along 
river bed. 

Constr. of counting dam for salmon and 
steelhead, to replace present poorly 
located dam six miles upstream ; also 
attendant's cottage. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



13 



FLOW MAINTENANCE AND STREAM IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS 



Name, Location and Sponsor 

1. Cri/tital Lake Level Maintenance ; 

Los Angeles Co., Angeles Natl. 
Forest, Upper San Gabriel Can- 
yon ; Messrs. W. P. Bryan and 
Lupi Saldana and U. S. Forest 
Service. Project No. 73. 

2. Deep Greek Stream Improvement 

(Holcomh Creek Dam) ; San Bdo. 
Co., San Bdo. Natl. Forest; In- 
land Fish and Game Conservation 
Assn. Project No. 2. 

3. Dry Lake Level Maintenance; San 

Bdo. Co., San Bdo. Natl. Forest: 
U. S. Forest Service and Div. of 
Fish and Game. Project No. 82. 

4. El Dorado Flow Maint. Dams; El 

Dorado and Alpine Cos., El Dor- 
ado Natl. Forest ; Mt. Ralston 
Fish Planting Club. Project No. 1. 

5. Emigrant Basin Flow Maint. Dam 

and Stream Imp. Program ; Alpine, 
Calaveras and Tuolumne Cos., 
Stanislaus Natl. Forest; U. S. 
Forest Service. Project No. 16. 

G. Granite Creek Floiv Maint. Dams; 
Madera Co., Sierra Natl. Forest ; 
Div. of Fish and Game. Project 
No. 41-1. 

7. .l/(/y.s/( Lake Level Maint.; Inyo Co. ; 
Div. of Fish and Game. Project 
No. 41-2. 

S. Mendocino Natl. Forest Stream 
Impr. and Flow Maint. Program; 
Colusa and Glenn Cos. ; U. S. For- 
est Service and Senator Louis G. 
Sutton. Project No. 12. 

!). Pine Creek Floio Maint. Dam; Las- 
sen Co., Lassen Natl. Forest ; Div. 
of Fish and Game. Project No. 4. 

10. Sacramento River Weir (rough fish 

barrier) ; Shasta Co., on Sacra- 
mento River above Shasta Lake ; 
Div. of Fish and Game. Project 
No. 67. 

11. San Bernardino National Forest 

Stream Imp.; San Bdo. and River- 
•side Cos. ; Div. of Fish and Game, 
U. S. Forest Service and Inland 
Council of Cons. Clubs. Project 
No. 81. 

12. San Diego County Floiv Maint. Dam 

Program; San Diego Co. ; San Di- 
ego Co. Federated Sportsmen. Pro- 
ject No. 58. 

13. Sequoia Natl. Forest Flotv Maint. 

Program; Tulare and Kern Cos. ; 
TJ. S. Forest Service. Project No. 
51. 
34. Tahoe Natl. Forest Flow Maint. and 
Imp. Program; Nevada, Placer 
and El Dorado Cos. ; U. S. Forest 
Service. Project No. 49. 



Description 

Purchase of pipe to collect water now 
wasted, to maintain proper lake level 
and provide more public fishing. Forest 
Service to install pipe. 



Dam for reservoir of approx. six surface 
acres to furnish a continuous flow of 
water to Ilolcomb Creek, now intermit- 
tent. 

Sealing lake bottom with bentonite to 
eliminate seepage losses, and increasing 
height and providing adequate spillway 
for existing dam. 

Constr. of dams on some 46 high moun- 
tain lakes to maintain stream flow and 
fish life during annual dry periods. 

Dams on 18 lakes, and on Summit and 
Airola Creeks and the S. Fork of the 
Mokelumne to maintain stream flow 
and fish life during annual dry periods. 

Dams on Lillian, Rainbow, Rutherford, 
McClure and Lower Jackass Lakes to 
maintain stream flow and fish life dur- 
ing annual dry periods. 

Dam to restore this heavily fished lake to 
its original area of four acres. 

Experimental plantings, particularly on 
Thomes, Grindstone and Big and Little 
Stony Creeks, to re-establish stream- 
side cover destroyed by severe floods 
during winter of 1937-38. 

Dam, complete with fish ladder to permit 
Eagle Lake trout to migrate to spawn- 
ing areas. 

Dam to prevent passage of rough fish 
from Shasta Lake upstream, equipped 
with fish ladder suitable for trout and 
holding tank to permit segregation of 
rough fish. 

General stream improvement and flow 
maintenance program on 14 s«'i>arate 
streams. 



Dams to maintain stream flow and fish 
life during annual dry periods on 10 
streams throughout county, totaling 
approx. 92 miles. 

Dams on 10 streams within forest to 
maintain stream flow and fish life dur- 
ing annual dry periods. Project re- 
quires further detailed study. 

Dams to control lake levels and maintain 
stream flow and fish life during annual 
dry periods. Includes Upper Truckee 
River improvement. 



14 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



FISH SCREEN AND LADDER PROJECTS 



Name, Location and Sponsor 

1. Battle Creek Screen; Shasta Co. 

side of Battle Creek ; Div. of Fish 
and Game. Project No. 44-9. 

2. Bennett und S)nitk Dam Fish Lad- 

der; Siskiyou Co., on S. Fork of 
Salmon Kiver ; Div. of Fish and 
Came. Project No. 44-3. 
.">. Burnt Ranch Falls Fish Ladder: 
Trinity Co., on main Trinity 
River ; Div. of Fish and Game. 
Project No. 44-2. 

4. Canyon Creek Fish Ladder; Trinity 

Co., four miles upstream from 
junction of Canyon Creek and 
Trinity River ; Trinity Co. Sports- 
men. Project No. 62. 

5. Central Headquarters for Stream 

Improvement ; Sacramento Co., at 
Central Valleys Hatchery. Elk 
Grove ; Div. of Fish and Game. 
Project No. 42. 
(). iJagueire Point Fish Ladders; Yuba 
Co.. at junction of Dry Creek and 
Yuba River ; Div. of Fish and 
Game. Project No. 3. 

7. Deer Creek Falls Fish Ladder; one 

mile upstream from Potato Patch 
Camp Grounds, Tehama Co. ; As- 
sociated Sportsmen of California. 
Project No. 9. 

8. Deer Creek Fish Screens; Tehama 

Co., three miles NE. of Vina ; Div. 
of Fish and Game. Project No. 
44-5. 

9. Glenn-Colusa Canal Screens; Gleun 

Co., Sacramento River and Stony 
Creek ; Div. of Fish and Game. 
Project No. 43. 

10. Men dot a Fish Ladder; Fresno Co., 

one mile NE. of Mendota ; Div. of 
Fish and Game. Project No. 44-7. 

11. Merced Fish Screen and Ladders; 

Merced Co., in vicinity of Snelling, 
about 15 miles E. of Merced ; Div. 
of Fish and Game. Project No. 
44-6. 

12. Salt Slough Fish Ladder; Merced 

Co., five miles E. of Los Banos ; 
Div. of Fish and Game. Project 
No. 44-8. 

13. Saivyer's Bar Auxiliary Dam; Sisk- 

iyou Co., on N. Fork of Salmon 
River ; Div. of Fish and Game. 
Project No. 63. 

14. Sutter-Butte Fish way ; Butte Co., 

Feather River, 5 miles E. of Grid- 
ley ; Div. of Fish and Game. Proj- 
ect No. 45. 



Description 

Screening irrigation ditch intake about i 
mile below Coleman Fed. Hatchery to 
safeguard young salmon and steelhead 
on way to ocean. 

Replacement of present inadequate, 
poorly located ladder. 



Creation of fish ladder by blasting pools 
out of the bedrocks in the more difficult 
rapids. 

Replacement of unsatisfactory wooden 
ladder with better located ladder and 
larger steps. 



I'refabricated building to serve as equip- 
ment warehouse and to house machine 
shop for constr. of minor installations 
and repairs. 

Constr. of two fishways at opposite ends 
of 750' Ig. Daguerre Pt. Dam, which 
now blocks salmon from about 90% of 
their spawning grounds. 

Ladder approx. 25' high to permit salmon 
to ascend to spawning grounds. 



Three screens and by-passes on irrigation 
ditches. 



Mechanical screens to prevent heavy an- 
nual losses of young salmon. Ditch at 
max. carries over 2,200 c. f. s. Present 
rack wholly unsatisfactory. 

Fish ladder over dam at Mendota Pool on 
San Joaciuin River. 

Four fish ladders and one screen on Mer- 
ced River. 



Fish ladder from San Joaquin River into 
Miller-Lux Canal to divert fish around 
dried-up section of main stream 
channel. 

Present fish ladder at Sawyer's Bar Dam 
unsatisfactory. Auxiliary dam to raise 
water level in pool below existing 
structure to allow fish to ascend. 

To replace present inadequate fishway 
which is responsible for heavy salmon 
losses. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



15 



GAME FARM PROJECTS 



Name, Location and Sponsor 

1. Binn-lcii Game Fnyui : Imperial Co., 

Div. of Fish and Game, Item 245, 
1947-48 Budget. Proiect No. 519- 
10. 

2. Chico Game Farm : Butte Co. ; Div. 

of Fish and Came, Item 245, 1947- 
48 Budget. Project No. 519-7. 

3. j\fnrysvnie Game Farm; Yuba Co.; 

Div. of Fish and Game, Item 245, 
1947-48 Budget. Pro.iect No. 519-8. 

4. Poifcrville Game Farm ; Tulare Co. ; 

Div. of Fish and Game, Item 245, 
1947-48 Budget. Project No. 519 9. 



Description 

To expand game propagation facilities 
and improve housing. 



To expand game propagation facilities 
and improve housing. 

To expand game propagation facilities 
and improve housing. 

To expand game propagation facilities 
and improve housing. 



OTHER UPLAND GAME PROJECTS 



Name, Location and Sponsor 

1. Coast Counties Quail Hahitat Im- 

provement; Central Coast Cos. ; 
Div. of Fish and Game. Project 
No. 549. 

2. Desert Quail Development ; desert 

region of Southern California ; 
Div. of Fish and Game and Inland 
Fish and Game Assn. Project No. 
503. 

3. Quail Hahitat Development ; all of 

California S. of U. S. Hw.v. 40, 
with major emphasis S. of the Te- 
hachapi ; Div. of Fish and Gam(\ 
Pro'ect No. 554. 

4. Doyle Winter Range; SE. corner of 

Lassen Co.; Div. of Fish and 
Game. Project No. 515. 



Description 

Provide watering places and other habitat 
improvements. 



Provide watering places and other habitat 
improvements. 



Providing watering places and improved 
habitat for quail and other game in re- 
gions with insufficient water and cover 
to maintain a game suppl.v. 

Constructiim of residence, garage and 
shop, fencing, etc. 



WATERFOWL PROJECTS 



Name, Location and Sponsor 

1. Butte Sink Waterfowl Mgt. Area; 

Colusa Co., in Lower Butte Basin, 
bordered on the E. by Butte Cr(>ek 
and extending westward toward 
Sacramento River ; staff of Board 
and Div. of Fish and Game. (Alt. 
to Upper Butte Creek. Project No. 
507.) 

2. Delta Waterfowl Mgt. Area; Solano 

Co., on the eastern side of Grizzly 
Island, along Suisun Bay ; staff 
of Board and Div. of Fish and 
Game. Project No. 550. 

3. Honey Lake Waterfowl Mgt. Area; 

SE. Lassen Co. ; Div. of Fish and 
Game. Project No. 523. 

4. Imperial Valley Waterfowl Mgt. 

Area; Imperial Co., near Salton 
Sea ; Div. of Fish and Game. Proj- 
ect No. 536. 



Description 

One of seven key waterfowl management 
projects to provide feeding grounds, 
I'csting areas, and pulilic shooting. Ap- 
prox. 3,578 acres, plus possible 1,000 
acres addl. (Orig. Upper Butte proj- 
ect consisted of 5,760 acres located 
farther north.) 

One of seven key waterfowl management 
units to provide feeding, resting, and 
public shooting grounds. Approx. 8,600 
acres. 

Construction of ponds, canals, control 
structures, etc. 

One of seven key waterfowl management 
units to provide feeding, resting, and 
public shooting grounds. 



16 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



WATERFOWL PROJECTS— Continued 



Name, Location and Sponsor 

5. Lower Butte Creek Waterfoivl Mgt. 

Area; Butte Co., N. of Marysville 
Biittes ; staff of Board and Div. of 
Fish and Game. Project No. 548. 

6. Lower San Joaquin Waterfowl Mgt. 

Area; Merced Co.; staff of Board 
and Div. of Fish and Game. Proj- 
ect No. 506. 

7. Madeline Plains Waterfowl Mgt. 

Area; Lassen Co. ; Div. of Fish 
and Game. Project No. 522. 

8. Madera Waterfowl Mgt. Area; Ma- 

dera Co., in the San Joaquin River 
Valley ; staff of Board and Div. of 
Fish and Game. Project No. 532. 

9. Upper San Joaquin Waterfowl J\fgt. 

Area ; Kern Co. ; Staff of Board 
and Div. of Fish and Game. Proj- 
ect No. 551. 



Description 

One of seven key waterfowl management 
units. Expansion of present Gray 
Lodge Refuge. 4,020 acres in area 
originally proposed. 

One of seven key waterfowl management 
units. Expansion of Present Los Banos 
Refuge. 0,678 acres to be purchased 
on San Luis Island (alternate to 
original area of 5,660 acres). 

Equipment, construction of ponds, roads, 
etc. 

One of seven key waterfowl management 
units to provide feeding, resting, and 
public shooting grounds. Approx. 5,120 
acres. 

One of seven key waterfowl management 
units. Tupman Elk Refuge plus 4,060 
acres of adjacent lands. 



GENERAL PROJECTS 



Name, Location and Sponsor 

1. Airplane Hangar; Sacramento Co., 

at the Sacramento Municipal Air- 
port ; Div. of Fish and Game. 
Project No. 1008. 

2. Central Laboratorp and Statistical 

Building: Alameda Co., Berkeley; 
Div. of Fish and Game. Project 
No. 1001. 

3. Delta Fish and Game Operations 

Base; Contra Costa Co., near S. 
end of Antioch Bridge, four miles 
E. of Antioch; Div. of Fish and 
Game. Project No. 1010. 

4. S. Humholdt Bay Public Recrea- 

tional Area; Humboldt Co., ap- 
prox. 5 miles SW. of Eureka ; Div. 
of Fish and Game and Northern 
Humboldt Fi.sh and Game Club. 
Project No. 1006. 



Description 

Constr. of 60' x 80' hangar for two Div. 
of Fish and Game planes, complete 
with workshop and storage space. 

Building to house statistical department, 
now unsatisfactorily located on Ter- 
minal Island, and to furnish laboratory 
for all research w^n-kers of the Div. of 
Fish and Game. 

Construction of centrally looated field op- 
erations base for Bureaus of .^lariiie 
Fisheries, Fish Conservation, and Pa- 
trol, including 40' x 60' warehouse and 
net workshop, 40' x 40' net rack and 
berthing facilities. 

Acquisition of approx. 760 to 900 acres 
of land along the bay for recreational 
purposes, particularly surf fishing and 
waterfowl shooting. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE OFFICER 

The Fish and Game Commission requested the Department of 
Finance, through its administrative analyst staff, to make an adminis- 
trative survey of the Division of Fish and Game, with a view toward 
reorganizing the division. Following submission of this report of survey 
the executive officer held many conferences with representatives of the 
U. S. Forest Service, the U. S." Fish and Wildlife Service, and the State 
Division of Forestry, all of whose activities are similar to our own, to 
determine the best plan for an administrative reorganization of the 
Division of Fish and ({ame. 

The recommended plan of the executive officer and the bureau chiefs, 
which was submitted to and accepted by the commission on June 27, 
1950, at Shasta Springs, California, is quoted herewith : 

RECOMMENDED PLAN FOR ADMINISTRATIVE 

REORGANIZATION OF THE DIVISION 

OF FISH AND GAME 

The last reorganization of the Fish and Game Division activities 
took place in 1926, and the following comments published in the quarterly 
magazine for January of that year are interesting : 

COMMISSION'S WORK REORGANIZED 

The work of consei'viiij; tlio fish and same resources of California is a sreat 
undertaking and the numerous employees of the commission must work together if 
real acoomiilishments are to l)e attained. Just as the efficient administration of any 
larjie corporation is dependent upon a selected si'oup of department heads u])on whom 
responsibility is fixed, so in the woi"k of the Fish and (Jame Commission similar 
departmental orsanization has become necessary. In fulfillment of the promise to 
give conservation work a thoroujjhly businesslike administration, the work of the 
commission is to be accomi)lislieil throus'b certain departments and bureaus. The 
main departments will be Administration, I'ati'ol. Fishculture, Ladders and Screens, 
and Commercial Fisheries. Less important branches of the work will be desisiuated 
as the Bureaus of Accounts, Education and Research, Publicity, and Game Farms. 

At the time of this 1926 reorganization the division had approxi- 
mately 200 employees with an annual budget slightly in excess of $800,- 
000. Approximately one-quarter million hunting licenses were sold in 
that year and slightly less than one-quarter million angling licenses. At 
the present time the division has over 700 employees with an annual 
budget of $5,500,000, not including Wildlife Conservation Board appro- 
priations. The sale -of hunting licenses has increased to approximately 
one-half million, while angling license sales have almost reached the 
million mark. It is a]5]iarent that the system which was satisfactory 
20-odd years ago cannot handle the tremendous increase in the work 
load today. 

The executive officer and the bureau chiefs have held many con- 
ferences and have reached the conclusion, after discussions with repre- 
sentatives from the U. S. Forest Service, the State Division of Forestry, 
and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, whose activities more or less 
correspond to our own, that a line and staff organizational setup, with 
regional offices, will best suit our requirements. 

(17) 



18 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

I. FUNCTIONS OF THE DIVISION OF FISH AND GAME 

The work of the Division of Fish and Game falls into several major functions: 

A. Assistance in formulation and application of fish and game policies. 

B. Fish and same management and habitat conti'ol. 
C Law enforcement. 

D. Propagation of fish and game. 

E. Fisli and game research. 

F. Conservation education and public information. 

G. Jjicense sales. 

H. Fiscal, budgetary and personnel controls. 

II. DEFICIENCIES IN THE PRESENT ORGANIZATION 

Several deficiencies in the present organization of the Division of Fish and Game 
hinder the efficient accomplishment of the above functions. These can be listed as : 

A. An important shortcoming in the present organization is the fact that the 
chiefs and intermediate staffs of the present bureaus have a dual capacity ; policy 
making and interpretation, atid the problem of actually administering this policy in 
the field. Most modern organizations of the size and complexity of the Division of 
Fish and Game separate the functions of policy leadership and interpretation under 
one category which is generally designated as staff, and the administrative responsi- 
bilities generally known as line authority. It is felt that an over-all organization 
within the division of the line and staff type would go a long way toward overcoming 
this deficiency in our present organization. 

B. A second major deficiency in the present organization is the lack of coordi- 
nation among the field personnel of the present bureaus. In general, coordination 
among the functions of the present bureaus is fairly satisfactory at the bureau chief 
level where constant contacts are made among the various chiefs in the San Francisco 
ofiice. At the field level, however, there is in various areas of the State a lack of under- 
standing of the problems that arise from the functions of the present bureaus. In 
many cases staff and operating members of one bureau are fully aware of commission 
policies and commission aims with respect to handling certain fish and game manage- 
ment matters, whereas the personnel of another bureau lack such understanding, and 
the resulting confusion, as far as statements to the public are concerned, puts the whole 
division in a poor position. This is perhaps the greatest deficiency in our present 
organization. Establishment of regional offices in which middle level personnel could 
have daily contact and regional direction would aid materially in such coordination 
and should be considered as a first step in any reorganization plan. 

C. The public is unable to obtain information or a clear statement of commission 
policy and activities on the local level. Established commission policy and activities 
should be readily available to the public locally. 

D. Many of the administrative difficulties of the Division of Fish and Game 
result from the organizational set-up in Sacramento, both between the division and 
the Department of Natural Resources, and between the division and the other agencies 
of State Government through the department. Fiscal control and the processing of 
personnel and other documents are unduly complicated and slow. Reorganization of 
the Division of Fish and Game alone will not correct these shortcomings. It is, how- 
ever, suggested that within the division itself many administrative procedures be 
standardized and placed on a regional basis. 

III. PROPOSALS FOR AN IMPROVED ORGANIZATION 

It is proposed that the Division of Fish and Game be modified into a line and 
staff type of organization together with the establishment of regional oflBces. 

A. Regions 

It is suggested that the State be divided into 11 administrative regions with 
headquarters as follows : 

I. Eureka VI. Modesto 

II. Redding VII. Monterey 

III. Chico VIII. Fresno 

IV. Sacramento IX. Bishop 

V. San Francisco X. Los Angeles 

XI. San Diego 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 19 

The basis for determining tliese regions is a dual one — taking care of tlie func- 
tions of the division as listed in Section I above, and of being of service to the public. 
The plan takes into consideration natural fish and game habitat zones, routes of travel 
and conveniently spaced population centers that may serve as headquarters for regional 
administrative offices. These offices must of necessity be of such size and nature that 
they will serve adequately all executive, staff and administrative per.sonnel neces.sary 
to the proper functioning of each region. 

The division already maintains at least a small installation at each of the regional 
headquarters proposed except for Modesto. Additional (luarters would be needed at 
some but not all of these points. 

The proposed regions would not be so large as to make proper administration 
difficult. The regional staff would be able to visit all installations frequently and 
maintain close touch with all personnel. Adequate administration would be possible 
along the entire coast, justified by the importance of the ocean fisheries. 

Aside from the division's administrative needs, one of the principal fund ions of 
the regional offices will be to serve as centers of information for the pul)lic, and fiir 
that reason alone they should be situated strategically and not too few in number. Tlie 
U. S. Forest Service is responsible for the administration of about one-fourth the 
land area of California, and has an organization similar to the one proposed herein. 
This agency has found it necessary to divide its work among IS forest super- 
visors. The State contains 11 higliway districts and several other state agencies 
have districted the State on about the same basis for administrative puri^oses. 

Creation of any lesser number of regions would result in such large adminis- 
trative units that it would be necessary to subdivide the regions and establish bi-anch 
offices with subordinate staff's. This would be cumbersome and expensive, and would 
add one more link in the administrative chain. 

B. Suggested Organization 

The over-all pattern suggested for the reorganization of the division is a line 
and staff organization wherein the various functions listed under Section I are admin- 
istered as a result of staff advice and leadershij) through the various regions listed in 
Section IIIA. 

This organization is roughly the same type as that used in the U. S. Forest 
Service, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Michigan Department of Conserva- 
tion, the Pennsylvania Department of Game, and Washington Department of Game. 
It has been adapted from these various plans to fit California conditions. 

The California plan as herein presented involves a state administrative set-up 
which has as its head a Chief of the Division of Fish and Game, aided by assistant 
chiefs who will aid him in matters of policy as it affects various subheadings of his 
over-all responsibilities. These assistant chiefs of the Division of Fish and Game are : 

Assistant Chief, Game 

Assistant Chief, Wildlife Protection 

Assistant Chief, Inland Fisheries 

Assistant Chief in charge of administr.'itive matters including finance and 

fiscal matters, budgets and accounts, personnel matters, license distril)U- 

tion 
Assistant Chief, Marine Fisheries 

Also responsible to the Chief of the Division of Fish and Game would be a 
Supervisor of Conservation Education who would act as a staff advisor. 

Responsible to the Chief of the Division of Fish and Game would be the 11 
regional managers who would be in charge of the execution of all functions in their 
regions. Each would be organized according to the rough pattern of the over-all state 
organization. In other words, attached to each regional manager would be staff 
assistants for game, inland fish, marine fish, law enforcement, and fiscal and personnel 
matters as needed in each region. In some regions more tlian one function might be 
handled by a single staff assistant. 

Such functional enii)loyees as wardens, trappers, game farm iierscuuie], fish 
hatchery personnel, upland game management crews, stream improvement crews, etc., 
as would be necessary to fulfill the action or line functions undertaken by the division 
in each region would be responsible to the regional manager of the respective region. 
The staff' of the regional manager would aid him in matters of policy and leadershi]) 
in carrying out the several functions within his region. 

Research direction, being state-wide in its nature, would be carried on as a 
function of the state level staff. Assistance in carrying on research would be given by 
the regions as necessary. 



20 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

C. Regional Managers 

The whole success of the siigKested plan hinges upon the caliber of the men 
selected as resional manafrers. The major change brought about by the adoption of 
the line and staff organization would be the decentralization of the work of the division 
and the delegation of responsibility to the regional manager for the work of the divi- 
sion in each area. The selection of these regional managers and the size of the areas 
they are called upon to administer thus become the major factors that will determine 
the success or failure of the new organization. 

The following are the main iiriuciples upon which the regional managers should 
be selected : 

1. The best opportunity for finding suitable men is among the TOO employees of 
Fish and Game. 

2. The examination for these positions should be open on a competitive basis to 
all men with a reasonable amount of experience, maturity and previous re- 
sponsibility, including men from outside the division who can qualify. 

3. Salaries should be above those now paid to any of the men to be under the 
regional manager's supervision. 

4. The qualifications and knowledge required should give a fair opportunity for 
men from all of the fields of law enforcement, management, research and 
administration. 

D. Statements of Commission Policies 

No decentralized organization can function properly without established policies 
for guidance. Without them the several regions might be administered quite differently, 
resulting in uneven service to the public and inequities to the personnel, as well as 
shortcomings in wild life management. 

There is at present a lack of written commission policies on various phases of 
fish and game management, accompanied by a poor distribution to men in the field of 
such policies that do exist. Such lack of written policies has resulted in employees 
making individual interpretations on fish and game matters that are quite often at 
a variance with sound procedures both as far as the wild life itself is concerned and 
as far as the public is concerned. Such firm policies should be adopted by the com- 
mission dealing with each of the major species of fish and game as well as their major 
management problems. Such policies should not be considered as fixed and unchanging, 
but should be regarded as living policies subject to continual revision by the commission 
upon recommendation of the staff and the public. 

With the type of organization such as t)utlined herein, dissemination of policies 
to all per.sonnel would be a simple matter. These policies would be made known to the 
people of the entire State by the regional personnel uniformly ;ind without delay or 
distortion. 

,£. The Need for an In-Service Training Program 

In order to implement the organizational plan presented herein and to insure its 
success, it is recommended that the division institute an in-service training program. 
Almost as important as the necessity for reorganization of the division is the need for 
various pei-sonnel of the division to be informed on all fish and game matters since 
virtually every employee of the division is called upon at some time or another to 
explain the work of the division as a whole or he may be called upon to explain the 
work of other members of the division, work with which he has no particular contact 
in the ordinary course of his duties. 

A well-planned, permanent in-service training program could do as much to put 
the Division of Fish and Game and the Fish and Game Commission in a better position 
to perform their services as would any reorganization that might be devised. It is 
suggested, therefore, that some plan such as the following program be adopted. Five 
in-service training officer positions should be set up as follows (one of these positions 
is already in the budget) : 

1. Law enforcement instruction. 

2. Administrative, fiscal and personnel matters. 

3. Game management. 

4. Inland fisheries management. 

5. Marine fisheries management. 

These in-service training officers should be attached to the assistant chiefs in 
charge of each of these functions and should in addition act together as a body, as 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAIj HKPORT 21 

an in-service training: faculty to indoctrinate thoroushly all personnel of t!ie division, 
and to conduct periodic schools for all permanent employees on a i)lanned, rotatinj;- 
basis. It should he the responsibility of the in-service training staff to prc'pare maniials 
of procedure and policy. 

Corollary to the general need for an in-sei-vice program as outlined above is the 
need for periodic inspections of field functions by state level staff as well as the need 
for periodic, planned regional meetings of regional staffs at which state level staff 
should be in attendance and take part in the program. 

As soon as a determination is made by the commission of the number of regional 
districts which would be most suitable, I recommend the proposed plan be submitted 
to the Senate and Assembly Interim Committees, the Director of Finance, the Per- 
sonnel Board, the Legislative Auditor, sportsmen groups, and the press for their study, 
with a request that their suggestions or comments be returned at an early date. 
(Signed) 

E. L. Macaulay 
Executive Officer 

PERSONNEL CHANGES 

DEATHS 

Arthur L. Stager, Fish and Game Patrol Captain Oct. 28, 1948 

August Bade, Chief, Bureau Game Farms (retired) Feb. 11, 1949 

S. H. Dado, Assistant Chief, Bureau Marine PMsheries (retired) Mar. 12, 1949 

Carl J. Walters, Fish and Game Warden June 9, 1949 

Eugene Piatt. Game Farm Superintendent July 11, 1949 

Ethel W. Murphy, Intermediate Stenogra])her-Clerk July 25, 1949 

Abe Woodard, Fish H:itchery Man (retired) Sept. 15, 1949 

C. S. Bander, Assistant Chief, Patrol (retired) Sept. 27, 1949 

Earl Hiscox, Fish and Game Warden Nov. 3, 1949 

Gen. H. H. Arnold, Former Commissioner Jan. 15, 1950 

Fred Hecker, Fish and Game Patrol Captain Jan. 20, 1950 

Henry Ocker, Fish and Game Warden Jan. 26, 1950 

Frank Schuhneyer, Game Conservation Aid (retired) Jan. 30, 1950 

Rudy Gerhardt, Fjsh and Game Warden Mar. 17, 1950 

RETIREMENTS 

Brian Curtis, Supervising Fisheries Biologist . Nov. 30, 1948 

K. T. Hogan, Supervising Clerk, Grade 1 Sept. 1, 1948 

J, H. Sanders, Fish and Game Patrol Captain Aug. 31, 1948 

Abe Woodard, Fish Hatchery Man Oct. 31, 1948 

Carlos O. Fisher, Fish and Game Warden May 4, 1949 

C. S. Bauder, Assistant Chief, Patrol June 30, 1949 

Cliff S. Donham, Fish and Game Warden June 30, 1949 

Chas. Sibeck, Fish and Game Warden June 30, 1949 

J. S. Hunter, Chief, Bureau of Game Conservation Aug. 31, 1949 

Raymond Coons, Fish Hatchery Assistant Sept. 14, 1949 

Frank Schulmeyer, Game Conservation Aid Dec. 16, 1949 

W. C. Blewett, Fish and Game Warden Dec. 31, 1949 

Elvin C. Anderson. Fish Hatchery Assistant Dec. 31, 1949 

Charles Ledshaw, Hunter and Trapper Feb. 11, 1950 

Ben R. Saunders, Senior Accountant April 30, 1950 

Thos. J. Smith, Fish and Game Warden June 30, 1950 

AVm. F. Kaliher, Fish and Game Warden June 30, 1950 

Bessie W. Kibbe, Senior Librarian June 30, 1950 

APPOINTMENTS 

T. W. Schilling, Assistant Chief, Patrol July 1, 1948 

Leo Shapovalov, Supervising Fisheries Biologist Jan. 1, 1949 

J. F. Janssen, Jr., Assistant Chief, Marine Fisheries July 1, 1949 

R. F. Classic, Assistant Chief, Patrol July 1, 1949 

S. R. Gilloon, Assistant Chief, Patrol July 22, 1949 

Ben Glading, Chief, Game Conservation Sept. 1, 1949 

J. E. Chattin, Assistant Chief, Game Conservation Mar. 1, 1950 

P. M. Roedel, Editor, "California Fish and Game" Mar. 10, 1950 



22 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

CONSERVATION EDUCATION 

Durinp- the hieniiium. greater em]^hasis was placed on better coojiera- 
tion with the State Department of Edneation and the state colleges and 
schools. Five leaflets were prepared and pid)lished: "California Valley 
Quail, " " Beaver, " " Salmon, " " Trout, ' ' and ' ' Striped Bass. ' ' All were 
written and stjded for the fourth and fifth grade levels, and each eon- 
tains a color print of the species, and maps or sketches to illustrate the 
text. Distribution is handled by the Bureau of Textbooks and Publica- 
tions of the Department of Education. Response from teachers has been 
tremendous, with requests for "more leaflets on more subjects." 

Three of the division's motion pictures were re-edited and the nar- 
rations rcAvritten, especially for use in schools. These have been given 
"XX-Excellent" ratings by the Audio-Visual Division of the State De- 
partment of Education and are being widely used. 

Active participation by the supervisor in conservation educational 
coiiferences, with lectures and pictures at workshops conducted by the 
various state colleges, and at teachers' institutes held in many counties 
has undoubtedly aided in furthering the proposed program of integrat- 
ing the teaching of conservation of natural resources in the schools and 
state colleges of California. 

PUBLIC INFORMATION SECTION 

Using primarily the mass information media, the public information 
section attempts to inform and educate license buyers and the general 
public concerning their obligations toward fish and game conservation. 

To better fulfill this mission, headquarters of the public information 
officer was transferred from Sacramento to San Francisco in March, 1949. 
The new^ location permits easier contact and closer liaison with important 
news media, division personnel, and the commercial fishing industry. 

The 1949 Legislature authorized the appointment of an editorial 
assistant in the information section. Partly because of a shortage of 
eligibles willing to accept the comparatively low salary, the post was 
not filled on a permanent basis. 

A major step toward standardizing the information program was 
accomplished in the spring of 1949. At that time, the public information 
officer took over the duties of distributing publications which were for- 
merly handled from five or more separate places. Aside from technical 
matters, the section now handles state-wide distribution of bulletins, 
publications, photographs, maps, and abstracts of regulations. In addi- 
tion, most telephone calls and letters requesting general information re- 
ceived at the San Francisco office are processed, as are requests for back 
issues of California Fish and Game, the quarterly magazine. These 
duties are performed by an intermediate stenographer-clerk at San 
Francisco. 

Since inaugurating the standardized distribution program, an aver- 
age of 5,000 pieces of literature were distributed by the section each 
month. Mail requests averaged 450 per month, telephone requests 125 
per month, and personal requests at the counter, 200 per month. In 
addition, literature was provided for distribution at division offices and 
license agencies, and at fairs and sportsmen's shows. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 23 

Starting' from seraleh. an exhibit program was undertaken in the 
Slimmer of 1948. Portable display units, capable of being shipped or 
carried with ease, have been assembled for exhibit use at sportsmen's 
shows, county fairs, and schools. 

Servicing the press remains the most important function of the 
section. During the biennium, the mailing list of Outdoor California 
weekly was brought up to date, and the quantity of information material 
to the press increased. Response from publications of all types was 
excellent, with the division receiving more newspaper clippings than 
any other state agency. 

The increase in the numbers of license buyers and the general inter- 
est stimulated in fish and game matters throughout the State calls for 
maintenance of a well-balanced information program. To assure con- 
tinued acceptance of the commission's policies, and to gain ground in 
the solving of complex public relations problems, it seems necessary to 
expand these activities in keeping witii the increased activities of other 
division functions. 

LIBRARY 

Early in 1949 direct supervision of the library was delegated by 
the executive officer as a staff' function of the Public Information Section. 
At the same time, the responsibility for filling certain types of outside 
requests for publications and information was taken over by the latter 
section, leaving the librarian with more time to devote to serving the 
staff of the division, by mail and in person. The work load was also 
eased by the employment of a clerk-typist in July, 1949. Crowded quarters 
became the major problem, but a change of location is planned for July, 
1950. Considerable attention was devoted to the binding of periodicals 
and serials. During the biennium, the collection grew to a total of 4,500 
bound books and periodicals and 10,752 pamphlets. 

"CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME" 

The eiglit issues of the quarterly journal California Fish and Game 
published during the biennium contained a total of 670 pages, with 42 
major articles and many shorter notes. The material included in the 
magazine is largely technical or semitechnical and the subscription list 
includes large numbers of professional biologists, educational institu- 
tions, and libraries. The majority of the subscribers, however, are non- 
professionals who are interested in the more technical aspects of con- 
servation work. Demand for the magazine has increased steadily and 
it was necessary to inci-ease press runs from 5,500 to 6,500 copies during 
the two-year period. 

FISCAL 

Financial statements for the biennium appear in Appendix A. Total 
revenue for the 1948-49 (100th) Fiscal Year was $5,529,046.65; for the 
1949-50 (101st) year, $5,626,113.22. These receipts are substantially 
greater than those for the preceding biennium : $3,556,426.26 in 1946-47, 
and $4,335,994.15 in 1947-48. Expenditures were $4,291,873.67 in 1948-49 
and $4,530,864.64 in 1949-50. 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF GAME 
CONSERVATION 

Each year California's unattached hunters are finding fewer areas 
on which to hunt, because trespass without permission and damage to 
crops, livestock, fences and other property by a minority of unsports- 
manlike hunters have created an unfriendly situation between sportsmen 
and landowners. This hostile relationship between landowaiers and 
hunters was especially prevalent in the rice-growing region of the Sac- 
ramento Valley where most of the State's pheasant population is found. 
Opening these areas to controlled pheasant hunting has been one of the 
most urgent problems confronting the bureau. 

An experimental pheasant study area, the Sartain Eancli, initiated 
by bureau game biologists, w^as instrumental in the development of regu- 
lated hunting on private lands in California. Hunting on this ranch was 
successfully controlled in 1947 and 1948 by the bureau in cooperation 
with the landowner. The experience gained during these two years led 
to the development of a cooperative hunting plan in 1949. In this year 
Senate Bill No. 677 establishing cooperative hunting areas was passed 
by the State Legislature and was included in the Fish and Game Code 
as Section 1159. Rules and regulations for the management and control 
of these areas were then drawn up by bureau employees and enacted by 
the Fish and Game Commission. 

In order to minimize the problem of supervision and control, and 
at the same time to accommodate a large number of hunters, it was 
required that on any prospective area a minimum of 5,000 acres in a 
continuous tract be open to public hunting. A provision was made to 
allow the landowner to collect a daily fee not to exceed $2 per hunter 
if he so desired, with the stipulation that 25 percent of the total collected 
was to be used for wildlife maintenance and habitat improvement. 
Three types of zones were provided for in 1949: Closed zones (for 
protection of crops, buildings and livestock) on which no hunting was 
permitted ; restricted zones, on which permission to hunt was granted 
solely by landowners; and open zones, which were open to public hunt- 
ing by permit. Restricted zones were limited in size to 20 percent of the 
total area ; open zones had to be either a 5,000-acre tract or 50 percent 
of the entire cooperative hunting area, whichever was larger. The maxi- 
mum number of hunters allowed at any one time was one per five acres 
of open land, with the stipulation that the number of hunters could be 
decreased as conditions warranted. 

During the 1949 pheasant hunting season, six cooperative hunting 
areas were established by the bureau. On only one area (Sartain) was 
a fee charged for hunting privileges. By maintaining checking stations 
on each area, bureau personnel were able to control hunting, issue per- 
mits, and gather pertinent information regarding the pheasant kill. 
Reactions to this hunting plan were recorded and favorable responses 
to this type of controlled shooting far exceeded unfavorable remarks. 
On the Sartain area some criticism was directed toward the fee for 
hunting. However, most of this censure was voiced by unsuccessful 

(24) 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



25 



COOPERITIVE ! 


nimm mu i 


m^r-i^ H '^^K ^ I 




ii 4>v ■Hv> *«.^^« 1 




Figure 1. Cooperative hunting areas provide shooting for the unattached hunter 



hunters. Nearly all hunters expressed wishes for cooperative hunting 
areas. 

Table 1 lists the areas with the amount of land open to hunting, and 
it shows the number of hunters using these areas, their success and the 
reaction to this type of hunting. 

One of the most impressive points of the plan was that the 24 
cooperating landowners, when contacted by questionnaires or in person, 
were all in favor of this method of controlled hunting. Hunter damage 
to cooperating landowners' property was negligible during the entire 
season. The cooperative hunting area plan should do much to alleviate 
one of the largest problems confronting the bureau, namely that of 
opening land to hunter access where wild ring-necked pheasants are 
plentiful. 

TABLE 1. COOPERATIVE HUNTING AREAS IN USE DURING 
1949 HUNTING SEASON 



Area 


Number of 
acres open 
to hunting 


Number of 

hunters 
using area 


Number of 

pheasants 

shot 


Percentage 

of successful 

hunters 


Reaction of hunters to 
these areas by percent 




Favorable 


Unfavorable 


Staten Island 

Williams 

Sutter Basin 

Natomas 

Grimes 

Sartain* 


7,500 
5,000 
8,900 
8,800 
15,800 
12,450 


5,717 
3,906 
6,726 
10,922 
9,377 
4,518 


1,556 
1,193 
2,330 
2,122 
3,518 
2,733 


27 
31 
35 
19 
38 
60 


94.2 
96.2 
97.4 
95.7 
92.5 
76.4* 


5.8 
3.8 
2.6 
4.3 
7.5 
23.6 


Totals 


58,450 


41,166 


13,452 


33 


94.5 


5.5 



* Fee charged. 



26 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



WILDLIFE CONSERVATION BOARD PROJECTS 

During the biennium conservation activities in California received 
greater impetus as a result of the Wildlife Conservation Act. This act, 
authorized by the 1947 State Legislature, provided for a recreation 
program, and for the acquisition and- construction of lands and facilities 
for the propagation and conservation of wildlife. The Legislature also 
provided for the creation of the AA'ildlif e Conservation Board to formu- 
late a conservation program and authorized $9,000,000 for financing this 
program. Once the plans for state-wide projects had been drafted, it 
became the responsibility of the Division of Fish and Game to put the 
program into effect by constructing, operating, managing and maintain- 
ing the projects. 

All projects that entailed game conservation activities are adminis- 
tered by the Bureau of Game Conservation. Listed below are the Wildlife 
Conservation Board projects now being managed by the bureau. 



Project ^0. 
519-7 

519-8 

519-9 

519-10 



549 



503 



521 



554 



515 



GAME FARM PROJECTS 



Name, location 

Chico Game Farm 
(Butte County) 

Marysville Game Farm 
(Yuba County) 

Porterville Game Farm 
(Tulare County) 

Brawley Game Farm 
(Imperial County) 



Status 
Project completed. Accounts closed with end 

of 1949-1950 Fiscal Year. 
Project completed. Accounts closed with end 

of 1949-1950 Fiscal Year. 
Project completed. Accounts closed with end 

of 1949-1950 Fiscal Year. 
Project completed. Accounts closed with end 

of 1949-1950 Fiscal Year. 



OTHER UPLAND GAME PROJECTS 



Coast Counties Quail 
Habitat Improvement 
(Central Coast Coun- 
ties) 

Desert Quail Development 
(Desert region of South- 
ern California) 

Owens Valley Pheasant 
and Quail Development 
Areas (Inyo County) 



Quail Habitat Develop- 
ment (all of California 
south of U. S. Highway 
40, with major empha- 
sis south of the Tehach- 
api) 



Doyle Winter Range 
(Lassen County) 



Project completed. Merged with No. 554. 



Project completed. Merged with No. 554. 



This project has been canceled due to oppo- 
sition by lessees on City of Los Angeles 
lands. Project funds of approximately 
$45,000 have been restored to working 
balance of WCB. 

Equipment, materials and supplies for this 
project are purchased by WCB. Salaries, 
travel and vehicle mileage are paid from 
federal aid in wildlife restoration funds. 
At present, eight full crews are working. 
This project will continue during the 1950- 
1951 Fiscal Year on essentially the same 
basis. During last year 401 quail "guzzlers" 
were completed, numerous brushpiles were 
constructed and springs were developed for 
quail use. 

Project completed except for construction of 
residence. This has been deferred pending 
final determination of area boundaries and 
land acquisition under federal aid funds. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



27 



WATERFOWL PROJECTS 



Project No. 
507 



550 



523 



536 



548 



506 



522 



532 



551 



Name, location 

Butte Sink Waterfowl 
Management Area 
(Colusa County) 

Delta Waterfowl Man- 
agement Area 
(Solano County) 

Honey Lake Waterfowl 
Management Area 
( Lassen County) 

Imperial Waterfowl 
Management Area 
(Imperial County) 

Lower Butte Creek 
Waterfowl Manage- 
ment Area 
(Butte County) 

Lower San Joaquin 
AVaterfowl Manage- 
ment Area 
(Merced County) 

Madeline Plains 

Waterfowl Manage- 
ment Area 
(Lassen County) 

Madera Waterfowl 
INIanagement Area 
(Madera County) 

Upper San Joaquin 
Waterfowl Manage- 
ment Area 
(Kern County) 



Status ' 

Area not yet acquired. Acquisition in hands 
of Public Works Board. 

Land purchased March 30, UIHO. Ecpiipment 
ordered. Supervisory personnel hired. Fed- 
eral aid development project California 
40D approvi'd effective July 1, 1950. 

Project completed. Further developments cur- 
rentlv being made with federal aid funds. 
(California FA 38-D-2.) 

Project completed. Further developments cur- 
rently being made with federal aid funds. 
(California FA 36-D.) 

Area not yet acquired. 



Area not yet acquired. 



Project completed. Further development with 
federal aid funds. 



Area not yet acquired. 



Area not yet acquired. 



GAME INVENTORY POLLS 

Another noteworthy event that occurred during the biennium was 
the joint game inventory poll conducted by the Opinion Research Center 
of the University of Denver and the bureau. Information gathered by 
these two surveys was used to determine the annual kill of game species, 
and evaluate the State's game resources. The information was obtained 
by instigating a dual plan as follows : 

1. The Opinion Research Center contracted to furnish state-wide 
and regional records of the kill of the several game species. The method 
employed was to interview 1,250 respondents randomly selected from 
the 1948-49 hunting license stubs. 

2. Bureau personnel selected a random sample of 2 percent of the 
purchasers of 1948-49 hunting licenses, distinct from the personal inter- 
view sample, which was used in mailing post card questionnaires. Infor- 
mation derived from the cards returned was projected to obtain the game 
kiU by counties and for the State as a whole. In order to minimize a.ny 
error in the post card answers, either accidental or by intent, a portion 
of the personal interview respondents were mailed coded questionnaires. 



28 



PISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



Comparison of these questionnaires with the completed interviews should 
indicate a correction factor which may be applied to the entire post card 
sample. In theory this correction factor may be used in a few subsec^uent 
years, unless there is a complete change in either the methods of hunting 
or the general economy of the State. The results obtained by each sam- 
pling method for the state-wide game kill are compared in Table 2. 

TABLE 2. RESULTS OF GAME INVENTORY POLLS 



Species 


Total estimated take 


Difference 


O. R.'C. 


Postcards 


Actual 


Percent 


Quail, all species 

Doves-- _. . . 


1,902,400 
2,359,300 

554,800 

347,100 
2,853,300 

344,300 
90,300 

761,000 

1,150,600 

2,800 

104,300 


r 1,683,400 

2,486,000 

575,100 

318,700 

3,075,500 

354,800 

100,000 

575,700 

790,600 

2,200 

75,900 


219,000 
126,700 

20,300 

28,400 
222,200 

10,500 

9,700 

185,300 

360,000 

600 

28,400 


—11.5 
+5.4 


Pheasants 

Pigeons,. .. 


+ 3.7 
—8.2 


Ducks 


+ 7.8 


Geese . 


+ 3.0 


Deer_ _ _ __ . 


+ 10.7 


Rabbits — Brush and cottontail 


—24.3 


Rabbits — Jack 


—31.2 


Bear.. __ _ . . 


—21.4 


Tree squirrels - 


—27.2 






Totals -__ 


10,470,200 


10,037,900 


432,300 


— 4.1 







UPLAND GAME BIRD PRODUCTION 

The production of upland game birds by state game farms reached 
an all-time high during the biennium when a total of 177,517 birds were 
liberated. Of this number 172.217 were ring-necked pheasants, 166 Reeves 
pheasants, 2,252 chukar partridge, 2,776 valley quail, and 106 wild stock 
turkeys. A summary of the game bird liberations will be found in Appen- 
dix b". 

Part of this increase in upland game bird production can be attrib- 
uted to the new game farms that were placed in operation. The two game 
farms at Porterville and Brawley w^ere developed and enlarged from 
former sportsmen's groups pens that were taken over by the bureau. 
Three game farms of entirely new construction were placed in operation 
at Chico, Marysville and Los Banos. 

A policy for the distribution of pheasants has now been adopted by 
the commission. This policy not only provides for planned releases to be 
made on areas open for public hunting, but also includes lands that wull 
be closed to all pheasant hunting for five years ; these closed lands are to 
be considered as seed stock areas. It further states that releases will not 
be made on lands considered to be totally unsuitable pheasant habitat. 

Considerable time was spent by game farm personnel inspecting the 
increased number of private game farms, and checking the operation of 
game management areas. The work on the game management areas con- 
sisted of inspection of each area, and the banding and liberation of birds 
on these areas. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 29 

GAME MANAGEMENT AREAS 

The game inanaoeineiit area plan has now been in operation for 10 
years. This plan was initiated in 1939 by the State Legislature as an 
effort to stimulate the landowners' interest in the game crop. It was 
intended to foster and increase the supply of upland game through land 
management and stocking of game farm birds. Backers of the plan 
believed that the income derived from the game crop would provide an 
incentive to the landowner to manage his land for game production. 
Since these areas were to be open to any licensed hunter, the income from 
the game produced was to be obtained by charging hunters up to a 
designated maximum fee for shooting privileges. Actually the income 
received from the game crop could not compete with the high prices 
being paid foi- farm crops which these areas could produce. The land- 
owners also found it too difficult to control the public on these areas. 

In 1947 the State Legislature modified the plan to allow for non- 
commercial areas where the public was excluded. These private areas are 
now supported by season memberships, or by a share-the-cost arrange- 
ment with the operator. Most operators are now satisfied with the plan. 

There are now 43 operators who control 44,556 acres of land. During 
1949 they liberated 20,720 pheasants and killed 11,539 in 5,446 man-days 
of hunting. 

WATERFOWL MANAGEMENT AREAS 

Waterfowl management areas were created not only to provide the 
unattached hunting license-holder with a place to shoot, but also to pro- 
vide waterfowl with areas where they could feed and rest. The second 
part of this program includes management of land and water areas to 
the degree where waterfowl would be attracted to these areas and forego 
their depredations on the crops of surrounding agricultural lands. Until 
this biennium, all development and farming operations on these areas 
were carried out under service agreement with various contractors. This 
arrangement proved wholly unsatisfactory, as certain seasonal agricul- 
tural practices were not always performed at the opportune time. Start- 
ing in July, 1949, when the necessary equipment became available, all 
development work has been done by bureau personnel. 

On these areas hunters were offered their choice of three types of 
shooting grounds as follows : 

1. Fully developed areas with blinds for a fee of $5 per shooter. 

2. Partially developed areas with no blinds for a fee of $1 per 
shooter. 

3. Undeveloped or natural areas with no charge. 

Hunting success varies with weather conditions and the waterfowl 
migration, but on the whole hunters expressed satisfaction with the plan. 

The waterfowl management areas and the extent of their use by 
liunters are listed in Table 3. 



30 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

TABLE 3. WATERFOWL MANAGEMENT AREAS IN USE, 1948-50 



Area 


Acreage 
open to 
hunting 


Number of 
hunters 
checked 


Number of 

waterfowl 

shot 


Average 
number of 
waterfowl 
per hunter 


Imperial 

1948-49 - - -- - - 


3,580 


1 ,358 
1,216 

586 
558 

93 

75 


2,078 
1,992 

425 
518 

37 
161 


1.53 


1949-50 ___ - -__.- 


1.64 


Honey Lake 

194"8-49 -. - - - --- 


1,750 


.73 


1949-50 - - ______ 


.93 


Madeline Plains 

1948-49 _ _ 


4,775 


.40 


1949-50 __.. . . ______ 


2.15 








Totals 


10,105 


3,886 


5,211 


1.34 







GAME MANAGEMENT 

During the bienninm the number of game management districts was 
increased from five to seven. This expansion completed the state-wide 
division into districts for better supervision of liabitat development and 
control of game populations. These districts and the corresponding game 
managers in charge were as follows : North Coast, Nathan Rogan ; North- 
eastern California, Russell M. Bushey, Sr. ; Sacramento, Lawrence 11. 
Cloyd; San Joaquin, David M. Solleck; Inyo, Arthur L. Hensley ; South 
Coast, John Laughlin ; Southeast Desert, Fred Ross. It is the responsi- 
bility of each game manager to investigate game problems and apply 
corrective measures, also to administer bureau installations within his 
district. Game Manager James D. Stokes supervises the district game 
managers, and coordinates their efforts into a common program. Roland 
E. Curtis, who formerly supervised this group is now on leave with the 
Wildlife Conservation Board. 

SPECIAL HUNTING SEASONS 

ANTELOPE HUNT 

The last antelope hunting season was held in 1945. From 1946 
through 1948 aerial surveys showed that the number of adult male ante- 
lope was not sufficient to warrant a hunting season. However, in 1949 
the antelope population had again increased and a controlled hunt for 
bucks only was held August 27th through September 5th in Modoc, 
Lassen and Shasta Counties. As in previous hunts, permits selected by 
lottery were issued to 500 hunters. A check of all hunters revealed that 
349 antelope were shot during this season. Listed in Table 4 are the 
results of recent antelope hunts, and the annual antelope population as 
tallied from aerial surveys. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



31 



TABLE 4. ESTIMATED ANTELOPE POPULATION AND RESULTS 

OF HUNTS, 1942-1950 



Year 



Estimated 

antelope 

population 



Number of hunting per- 
mits issued 



Number of 

antelope 

shot 



Percentage 

of successful 

hunters 



1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 
1950 



3,752 
5,338 
6,147 
4,739 
2,798 
3,949 
3,592 
4,675 
3,852 



452 

452 

500 

500 

Hunting season closed 

Hunting season closed 

Hunting season closed 

500 
No hunting season planned. 



405 
362 
322 
307 



349 



90 
80 
64 
61 



70 




Figure 2. A herd of antelope in a close-up view from a Division of 
Fisli and Game airplane 

ELK HUNT 

The last special hunting season for reducing the Tule Elk herd in 
Owens Valley of Inyo County had been held in 1943. That year 75 per- 
mits were issued by lottery i'or taking 75 bulls. A check of all hunters 
revealed that 43 bulls were" harvested. Since that time population counts 
of this elk herd made by aerial surveys showed that the herd had been 
steadily increasing in numbers. By 1949 cattle ranchers, maintaining 
that the increase in the elk population was depleting the range, agitated 
for a hunting season. Consequently, a controlled hunt was held from 
December 2d through December 11th. A total of 125 permits was issued 



32 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



by lottery for taking 75 bulls and 50 cows. Records kept at hunters' 
checking stations showed that 61 bulls and 46 cows were shot, for a total 
of 107 animals. 

TABLE 5. ESTIMATED ELK POPULATION AND RESULTS 
OF HUNTS, 1943-1949 



Year 


Estimated 

elk 
population 


Number of 

hunting permits 

issued 


Number 
of elk shot 


Percentage 

of 

successful 

hunters 


1943 

1944 

1945 


189 
129 
268 
305 
324 
450 
495 


75 
No hunting season 
No hunting season 
No hunting season 
No hunting season 
No hunting season 
125 


43 bulls 
107 (61 bulls and 46 cows) 


57 


1946 




1947 

1948 

1949 


86 



CATALINA DEER HUNT 

For a number of years the deer population on Santa Catalina Island 
had been increasing until the range suffered from extreme overbrowsing. 
In 1948 an attempt was made to control this population by trapping and 
removing deer from the island. These operations accounted for 150 deer. 
The deer population still remained high so in 1949 the Catalina Island 
Company requested a controlled hunting season for taking deer of both 
sexes. 

A 13-week hunting season was set for November 1, 1949, to Januarj^ 
31, 1950, with a total of 1,950 hunting permits issued by lottery. Since 
permits were only valid for a one-week period, they were issued at a 
maximum rate of 150 per week. Checking station records showed that 
724 hunters took part in this hunt, and that they bagged 246 bucks and 
231 does for a total of 477 deer. 



PREDATOR CONTROL 

The predatory animal catch, which bad been previously recorded 
for each fiscal year, has now been changed to a report for the calendar 
3'ear. Reported here is the predatory animal catch for the 18-month 
period of July 1, 1948, to December 31, 1949. The report for the six-month 
period January 1-June 30, 1948, was presented in the last biennial report. 

During this 18-month period a grand total of 5,193 coyotes and 2,081 
bobcats was taken by our predatory animal hunters and trappers. A total 
of 5,290 other lesser predators was taken during the same period. A 
summary of the predatory animal catch will be found in Appendix B. 

MOUNTAIN LION CONTROL 

On May 18, 1948, the ten thousandth mountain lion was brought in 
for bounty. This lion was taken by Charles W. Bucknell of Bell Springs 
in Mendocino County. The first lion to be bountied was also taken in 
Mendocino County on October 2, 1907, by Jake Newcomer. It was in 1907 
that the first bounty on mountain lions was proposed by Commissioner 
Fred Van Sicklen, and a payment of a $20 bounty was authorized. Com- 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 33 

missioner Van Sieklen was very much interested in deer hunting, and he 
believed that by rediieino- the number of lions in the State, deer could be 
increased. The deer popidatioii had not yet recovered from the heavy 
drain of early days brought on by tlie liide and market hunters. In 1917 
the original bounty of $20 was increased to $30 on female lions. The 
Legislature in 1945 authorized a further increase to $60 on females, and 
$50 on males. 

In 1918 Commissioner Bosque recommended that Jay Bruce be em- 
ployed to devote his entire time to lion hunting. Later, Charles Ledshaw 
was also employed. Both of these men have now retired from active lion 
hunting. During their hunting days Bruce accounted for nearly 700 lions, 
and Ledshaw 308. At the present time there are five lion hunters detailed 
to different sections of the State. 

A total of 199 mountain lions was taken during the calendar year of 
1948, and 202 in the calendar year of 1949 ; for a grand total of 401 lions 
during this two-year period. Of these 401 lions, 109 were taken by state 
lion hunters and 292 were bountied by private persons. State trappers 
operate where there have been com]i]aints by stock ranchers which usually 
means they get into country that is not readily accessible to the general 
public. 

A summary of the mountain lions taken from 1907 through 1949 
will be found in Appendix B. Over lialf of this lion kill has been taken 
in the northwestern portion of the State. Other areas recording a high kill 
are the four central coast counties from Monterey to Ventura, and in the 
south Sierra from Fresno County south. Humboldt County (3,507 square 
miles) has bountied 1,080 lions, the largest number taken for any one 
county, but Lake County (1,332 square miles) with a take of 502 lions 
has produced more lions per square mile than any other county. 

CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME LANDS 
OTHER THAN GAME FARMS 

Tehama Winter Deer Range with 42,896.90 acres was purchased 
from 1943 to 1950, inclusive, to protect winter range from natural food 
depletion by heavy stock-grazing. Additional purchases are pending. 

Doyle Winter Deer Range with 13,429.15 acres was purchased from 
1948 to 1950, inclusive, to protect winter range from natural food deple- 
tion. Additional purchases are pending. 

Honey Lake Waterfowl Management Area with 3,519.70 acres was 
purchased from 1942 to 1944, inclusive. Additional purchases are now 
pending. 

Imperial Waterfowl Management Area with 535.24 acres was pur- 
chased in 1948. Additional purchases are pending. 

Madeline Plains Waterfowl Management Area with 5,176.10 acres 
was purchased from 1945 to 1949, inclusive. 

(xrav Lodge Waterfowl Refuge with 2,541.51 acres was purchased in 
1931-32." 

Imperial Waterfowd Refuge with 2,064.43 acres was purchased in 
1931-32. 

Los Banos Waterfowl Refuge with 3,000 acres was purchased in 
1929. 

Suisun Waterfowl Refuge with 1,887 acres was purchased in 1932. 

2 — 49247 



u 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



FEDERAL AID IN WILDLIFE RESTORATION 
(PITTMAN-ROBERTSON) 

The Pittman-Robertson prof>rain has expanded during the biennium 
until California now receives its maximum apportionment of federal aid. 
For the Fiscal Year 1948-49 California received $496,627.81, and for 
fiscal 1949-50, $478,548.26 was received. California's contribution, as 
required by the act, broujiht the total available for expenditure during 
the biennium to $1,300,280.75. 

A total of 22 projects was in operation during all or part of the 
biennium. Of these, nine were of the surveys and investigations category, 
seven were development j^rojects, four provided for the acquisition of 
lands, one was a maintenance project, and one a coordination project, 
which directed and supervised the other projects. Following is an account 
of the various projects which have been undertaken. 

SURVEYS AND INVESTIGATIONS 

Project 1!)-K. The Study of the Life History and Maiia^eineiit of Mtniiitaiii 
Quail in California. Emphasis was placed on reproduction, effects of man, and the 
food, water and cover requirements. This project was tei'miiiated as of June 80, 1050, 
and a final report prepared hy project leader K. V. Miller. 

Project 20-R, A Survey of Waterfowl Food Plants of California. This will 
determine the location and abundance of waterfowl food plants, and decide on areas 
where planting of natural foods would he feasible. The results of this study will l)e 
published as an illustrated manual of California marsh plants. Through a service 
agreement with the University of California, Dr. H. L. Mason is leader of this project. 




Figure 



This artificial quail roost not only provides roosting cover for quail, but 
also furnishes shade for deer 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



35 



I'roject 22-R. The Life History and Management of the Rin;;-necive(l IMieasant 
in California. This project is evaluating;- the effects of agricultural practices on 
pheasant populations, especially in the Butte Sink area. Also, the survival of released 
same farm pheasants raised from wild stock is beins: compared with pheasant releases 
made from regular game farm stock. Managi'ment practices lieing tested include food 
and cover plautin.gs. water develojuncnt. and trap])ing wild pli(>asants in heavily 
]iopulated areas for restocking depleted areas. Hunters are checked during the pheasant 
hunting season to determine hunting pressure, the pheasant kill, crippling loss, and 
the survival of relea.sed and wild birds. At the same time hunting season controls as 
they ap])ly to hunters and land uses are l)eing studied to facilitate farmer-sportsmen 
relationships. Harold T. Harper is the leader of this i)r<i.iect. 

I'roject 25-R, A Study of the Food Habits of (California (Jame Birds and Mammals 
and Species Affecting Their Welfare. As an integral part of wildlife management 
studies now in progress in California, it is necessary to obtain information as to the 
food iireferences of game and i)redatory species. C. .M. Ferrel is leader of this project. 

Project 2S-R, A Study of Deei- Population and Management Problems in Cali- 
fornia. These stiulies consist of an api)raisal of the management problems involved, 
particularly in respect to range condition, deer numbers, agriculture and livestock 
conflicts. This project is being conducted under service agreement with the University 
of California with Dr. A. S. I>eopold as leader. 

I'roject 30-R, A Stiuly of Production, ^Migration and Wintering Areas of Water- 
fowl in California. An evaluation is being madi' of the production and wintering 
grounds of the principal waterfowl areas of the State, which includes Suisun Marsh 
and the Sacramento-San Joa(|uin Delta, the Inyo-]Mono and Owens Valley area, and 
the northeastern section of California. These studies include large scale trapping and 
banding o|»erations of resident and Tuigratory waterfowl. Also, an investigation is being 
conducted on the effects of reclamation projects and land uses on waterfowl populations. 
A. W. ^liller is the leader of this project. 

Project 31-R, A Study of the p]ffects of Brush Removal on Game Ranges in 
California, will determine sound methods for management of brush areas for wildlife 
habitat imprcjvemeut. The project is under service agreement with the T'niversity of 
California, with Dr. H. A. Biswell as leader. 

Project 33-R, An p]valuation of Quail Development and Management Practices 
in California. Studies are being conducted to determine the effects of cover planting 
and water development on quail populations. Types of construction and the value of 




r-r.^«3«'«ff' .'^V .<S "^JlM-t f«J^>^V^< 



«.« HWAT«6™«ll«.'4-'-'. 



Figure 4. Installing one of the new type plastic gallinaceous guzzlers 



36 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

artificial roosts are being tested. Also, tlie effects of cover removal, grazing, cultivation, 
controlled burning, rodent control, predator control, and hunting pressure on quail 
populations are being investigated. This project is under the leadership of Wallace 
G. Macgregor. 

Project 35-R, A Study of Diseases of Wildlife Species in California, is concerned 
especially with those diseases which are of definite known importance in respect to 
wildlife, and which ap])ear to offer possibilities of being controlled by management 
practices. Merton Rosen is leader of this project. 

DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS 

Project 0-D, Suisun Waterfowl Refuge, involves 1887 acres of land to provide 
waterfowl feeding and resting areas by construction of levees, ditches and tide gates. 

Project 13-D, Gray Lodge Waterfowl Refuge, involves 2,542 acres of land to 
provide waterfowl feeding and resting areas by construction of levees, ditches, roads 
and buildings. 

Project 2()-I), The Restoration of Valley Quail, Gambel Quail and Mountain 
Quail in California. This project represents the major effort in habitat development 
for California quail, and includes plantings for food and cover improvement, the erect- 
ing of artificial quail roosts, and the construction of "gallinaceous guzzlers" or rain 
catchment basins for providing quail with water. Through this habitat development 
program, many ar(>as that were formerly unsuitable as quail range are now producing 
quail for California's hunters. The program has received help through financial aid 
from county fine moneys, and physical labor from sportsmen and other interested 
groups. 

The "gallinaceous guzzler" progr.-un has been accelerated by the use of prefabri- 
cated plastic basins and glass mat (asphalt emulsion) catchment aprons. The installa- 
tion of the plastic model requires about one-fifth the time needed for the construction 
of the concrete type of guzzler. Another advantage gained by using the plastic model 
is that it can readily be moved to a new site, if the original location proves unsatis- 
factory. 

During the I)iennium r)74 guzzlers were installed, bringing to 734 the number 
now in operation. 

Project 34-D, Game Trapping and Transplanting, to restock formerly occupied 
habitat, to extend the range of a species, and to supplement remnant species. The work 
consisted of live-trapping and transplanting game mammals where required. The 
project operated periodically only wh(>n the need foi- this type of work arose. 

Project oti-D, Development of Imi)erial Waterfowl Management Area, involving 
12.000 acres of land, provided waterfowl feeding, resting, public shooting areas and 
facilities for the in-oper management of the area by the construction of levees, ditches 
and buildings, and by the development of the land for farming of waterfowl food crops. 

Project 38-D, Development of the Honey Lake Waterfowl Management Area, 
involves 3,520 acres of land for the provision of waterfowl feeding, resting and nest- 
ing areas and facilities for the proper management of the area by construction of 
levees, ditches, roads and buildings. 

Project 39-D, Development of the Madeline Plains Waterfowl Management 
Area, involving 4,776 acres of land, provided waterfowl feeding, resting and nesting 
areas and facilities for the proper management of the area by construction of levees, 
ditches, roads and buildings. 

LAND ACQUISITION 

Project 10-L, Tehama Winter Deer Range. This area provides winter feed for 
deer migrating down from the mountains. To preserve this winter range 33,963 acres 
have been acquired, and more land may l)e i)urchased if it becomes available. 

Project 11-L, Honey Lake Waterfowl Management Area. An area of 3,520 acres 
has been purchased for waterfowl feeding, resting, nesting, and to provide public 
shooting areas. Additional segments of land will be purchased as they become available. 

Project 17-L, Madeline Plains Waterfowl Management Area. To provide water- 
fowl Avith feeding, resting and nesting areas and to furnish the public with hunting 
grounds, 5,176 acres of land have been purchased. More land will be acquired as it 
becomes available. 

Project 21-L, Doyle Winter Deer Range. An area of 11,700 acres of land has 
been purchased to provide winter feed for the migrating interstate deer herd. Further 
purchases will be made as the land becomes available. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 37 

MAINTENANCE 

Project ;^7-M. Tliis project inspects and maintains the installations that have 
been developed to provide cover, water and food for (piail. 

COORDINATION 

Project 29-C. It is the responsibility of this in-oject to select, idan, direct and 
supervise the other I'ittinan-Rol)ertson jirojects and nniivc certain tlnit thes<' jirojects 
are pi'odnctive of results, 

DISEASE LABORATORY 

Disease investigations, have been greatly enhanced by the addition 
of a special mobile laboratory. This laboratory, built on a one-ton panel 
truck, was desioned to till the need for rapid diagnosis of wildlife diseases 
in the field. The emphasis was placed on mobility and maneuverability 
so that the site of a disease outbreak could be reached quickly even in 
areas that might be considered somewhat inaccessible. The laboratory 
contains all the necessary facilities for complete diagnosis in the fields 
of bacteriology and parasitology, making it a completely self-sustained 
unit. 

The mobile laboratory was first used at the south end of San Fran- 
cisco Bay to diagnose an outbreak of avian cholera among waterfowl, 
gulls and shorcbirds. KSeveral control measures were })ut into ett'ect, but 
an estimated 40,000 waterfowl succumbed to this disease. 

An extensive project is now in progress to determine the blood pic- 
ture of deer, including blood chemistry, in the expectation of finding 
reliable factors that can be used as an indicator of the animal's condition. 
It is anticipated that the results of this study will form a base that can be 
used as an index of the state of nutrition of the deer as it relates to range 
management, and will incidentally classify the anemias that may occur 
in these animals. 

Perhaps the greatest progress in disease control has been made at 
the state game farms. Pullorum, a bacterial disease of the intestinal 
tract of gallinaceous birds, has been eradicated through a control pro- 
gram. Other control methods have been used to eliminate avian tubercu- 
losis in adult pheasants and chukar partridge. Studies are also in progress 
on controlling gapeworm infections and ulcerative enteritis-quail disease. 

PUBLICATIONS BY STAFF MEMBERS OF THE BUREAU 
OF GAME CONSERVATION 

Quarterly progress and final rejiorts are prepared on all work con- 
ducted by the Pittman-Robertson projects. Summaries of these reports 
are published by the United States Department of the Interior Fish 
and Wildlife Service. 

During the biennium other reports and ai'ticles w^ere published by 
bureau personnel as follows: 

Dasmann, William P. 

1948. A critical review of range survey methods and their application to deer range 
management. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 34, no. 4, p. 189-207. 

1949. Deer-livestock forage studies on the interstate winter deer range in Cali- 
fornia. Journ. of Range Management, vol. 2, p, 206-212. 



38 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

Fen-el, Carol M., and Howard R. Leach 

IO.jO. p"'ood haliits of the prong-horn antelope of California. Calif. Fish and (Jaine, 
vol. 3(i. no. 1. p. 21-26. 

Ferrel. Carol M.. llarohl Harper and Jack Iliehle 

15)4!). A progress report on pheasant hnnting season studies for the years l!)4(l. 
1<.)47 and 1948. Calif. Fish and (ianie. vol. :!.->. no. 4. p. 301-322. 

Ferrel, Carol .M.. Ilowai-d Twining and Xoi'nian 15. Hei'keidiain 

1949. FoikI iialiits of the ring-necked iiheasant i I'lKiniaii ux colvhiciis) in the Sac- 
i-aniento Valley, California. Calif. Fish and (Jame, vol. 35, no. 1, p. r)l-69. 

Hensley, Arthur L., and B. C. Fox 

1948. Experiments on the management of Coh)rado lii\er Ijeaver. Calif. Fish and 
Game, vol. 34, no. 3, p. 115-131. 

Herman, Carlton M. 

1949. A new host for the eye worm 'riichi-ia ((ilifonnensis. Calif. Fish and (Jame, 
vol. 35. no. 2, p. 139* 

Herman, Carlton M., and Arthur I. IJisclioff 

1949. The duration of Ilaeiiioi)rot(i(s infection in California (piail. C.-ilif. Fish and 
Cami', vol. 35, no. 4, p. 293-299. 

19.50. I'ai)ill()ma. skin tumors in deer. Calif. Fish and (;aTn(\ vol. .3(>, no. 1, ji. 19-20. 

Herman, ('arlton M., and Richard Kramer 

1950. Control of gajteworm infection in game farm hirds. Calif. Fish and (Jame, 
vol. 3(), n<i. 1. p. 13-17. 

Herman. Carlton M.. and [Nlerton N. Rosen 

1949. Disease investigations on maininals and hirds hy the California Division of 
Fish and (Jame. Calif. Fish and (Jame, vol. :;5, no. 3, p. 193-201. 

Interstate Deer Herd Committee 

1949a. Interstate winter deer range management plan. Calif. Fish :ind (Jame. vol. 35, 
no. 2, p. 103-114. 

1949h. 'I'iiii'd progress report on tiie coMpcraliNc study of the interstate deer herd 
and its r:inge. Calif. I^'ish and (Jame. \ol. 35. no. 2, p. 115-134. 

1950. P'oui-th in'ogress report on the cooperative study of the interstate deer hei'd 
and its range. Calif. PMsh and (Jame, vol. 3(i, no. 1, i*. 27-52. 

McLean, Dona hi D. 

1950. Duck l)anding at Tulare Lake. Calif. Fish ;ind (lame, vol. 30. no. 2, p. 75-117. 

Rosen, Merton X. 

1948. Hermaphrorliti.sm in the Chinese ring-necked pheasant. Calif. Fish and (Jame, 
vol. 34, no. 3. p. 135-136. 

Rosen, Merton X., and Arthur I. Rischoff 

1949. The 194S-49 out])reak of fowl cholera in hirds in the San Francisco Bay 
area and surrounding counties. Calif. Fish and (Jame, vol. 35, no. 3, p. 
185-192. 

Rosen, Merton N., and Eugene D. Flatt 

1949. The control of avian tuberculoses in :t state game farm. Calif. Fish and 
Game, vol. 35, no. 4, p. 323-327. 

Twining, Howard, Henry A. Hjersman and Wallace Macgregor 

1948. Fertility of eggs of the ring-necked pheasant. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 34, 
no. 4, ].. 209-210. 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MARINE 

FISHERIES 

The responsibility for the conservation and administration of the 
ocean fisheries of California is in the hands of the Burean of Marine 
Fisheries. The bnrean conducts biolouical and statistical studies of the 
marine sport and commercial fisheries; and with the infoi-mation tlms 
gathered and analyzed, is able to make recommendations to the Fish and 
Game Commission and the Legislature for wise conservation measures. 
The bureau works in close cooperation Avith the Pacific Marine Fisheries 
Commission and the Marine Research Committee. Brief accounts of the 
activities of these organizations are presented on pages 65 and 66. 

During 1948 and 11)4!) California's fish catch was greater than it 
had been in the biennial jieriod innnediately preceding, but compared 
with the total landings in any of tlie 12 years from 1934 through 1945, 
it can not be considered high. The catcli trend reflects the success or 
failure of the sardine season, and the sardine fishery had not recovered 
from the failure which was so marked in 1946 and 1947. Tn 1948 the total 
catch was over 9()(),UU0,()UU pounds and in li)49 it reached 1,10(),00U,()()(). 

Among the cannery species three of the tunas surpassed previous 
records. Yellowfin tuna landings in 1948 were over 191, ()()(), 000 pounds. 
In 1949 ski]ijack jiassed the 78, 000, 000 jiouud mark and albacore totaled 
more than 44,000,000. Although the mackerels did not break a record the 
combined catch of jack and Pacific was over 112,000,000 pounds in 1948 
and slightly less the following year. The 1949 sardine catch of 633,000,000 
pounds was the best in four years but foi- the Pi-ycjir per-iod pi-ior to 
1945 the yearly catch was in the neighborhood of 1,000,000,000 pounds. 
Because sardines were scarce in the years immediately preceding 
this biennium, a very high percentage of the fish went into cans, and 
this, combined with the lieavy catches of tuna and mackerel, brought the 
1948 case pack to 2,000,000 more than had been packed during any 
previous year and in 1949 the pack exceeded 13,000,000 cases. 

Important among tlu' market species, the 1948 catch of sole was 
over 21,000,000 ])()unds or almost double the 1947 peak poundage. The 
crab catch of 1 1,000,000 pounds for each year set a record for that species. 
Salmon landings of approximately 7,000,000 pounds for each year were 
lower than the record catches of the previous four years. 

The value of the catch to the fisherman in 1948 was $80,500,000. The 
high price of fish in general and the heavv landings of tuna (yellowfin 
tuna, $32,000,000, skipjack, $9,000,000 and albacore, $11,000,000) com- 
bined to make this a banner year, exceeding the peak 1947 value by 
$2,000,000. In 1949 although the poundage was gi-eater, chiefly due 
to an increased catch of sardines, the wholesale value to the fishermen 
dropped to $73,000,000. Prices in general were lower and the high-priced 
yellowfin tuna catch was less in poundage. 

For the fourth year in succession the fishermen delivering to Eureka 
and other ports along the northern coast received over $3,000,000 for 
their catches; these were made up chiefly of sole, crabs, albacore and 

( 3'J ) 



40 PISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



90 

80 


1 1 

- A 


1 1 1 

A 


1 1 1 


1600 
1500 


70 
60 

2 50 

o 


\ 




/ : 


1400 
1300 
1200 1 


o 
O 

40 




\ 


^ / 


1100 


c 
o 

= 30 

2 


~ j^^ 


oS^i^^^"'"' 


\ / 
\ / _ 
\ / 


c 
1000 1 

5 


20 


^^^^^ 




\ y - 


900 


10 



1 1 


1 1 1 


1 1 1 


800 

7nn 


O — CVJ 


lO ^ If) 


iD r^ CO (J» 


"3- ^ ^ 


^ ^ <r 


•3- ^ -a- <t 


(T (Jl fft 


ffl 01 0^ 


ffl 01 0^ ffi 









Figure 5. Value and poundage of the California commercial fish catch, 1940-1949. 
Value represents the amount paid to the fishermen. 

salmon. San Francisco and Central California ports netted about $3,000,- 
000 which was low for that region and was caused by the scarcity of 
sardines. Monterey fisliermen received $5,000, 000 and $6,000,000 for the 
two years, an improvement over tlie preceding' l)iennium when the sar- 
dines failed to appear. The ports in the Santa IJarbara region had their 
best year in 1948 when the total value of the landings was in the neigh- 
borhood of $2,000,000. This area is growing in importance. Canneries 
have been established in the vicinity of Port Hueneme and facilities 
have been developed for receiving large loads of sardines for shipment 
by truck to the canneries in Central and Southern California. Los 
Angeles and San Diego had their best monetary year in 1948 when the 
value of the deliveries was $29,000,000 and $87,700,000, respectively. 
The 1949 value was slightly less. Tuna was in part responsible for this 
prosperity, but it was also partially due to the fact that there was such a 
large migration of northern vessels to the southern ports. 

This period has been marked by an extensive movement of the 
vessels in the fleet along the coast. Each year a greater number of boats 
and fishermen from Alaska, Washington and Oregon come south during 
the albacore season and remain to participate in other fisheries. In the 
two-year period 2,000 additional fishermen were licensed to fish in Cali- 
fornia waters (1949 — 14,962 fishermen) and there was an increase of over 
1 ,000 boats in the fleet (1949 — 6,160 vessels) . Many of the vessels entering 
the fleet were of larger sizes. In 1949 there were about 164 over 100 feet 
in length, equipped with modern devices for more efficient fishing which 
pei-mitted them to go farther afield and remain on the fishing grounds 
for a greater length of time. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



41 



SARDINE 

The present bienninm saw an improvement in the sardine fishery 
and a steady increase in tonnage landed. From the low of 121,000 tons 
in 1947-48 the r-ateh went to 184,000 in 1948-49 and 336.000 in 1949-50.* 
As a result the industry is in a much healthier condition than in the 
previous biennium. Although more sardines were available on the San 
Francisco and Monterey fishing grounds there were not enough fish to 
meet the needs of the processors in these two ports. As a result the truck- 
ing of sardines from Southern California, started in l!)46-47, was con- 
tinued through 1949-50. To meet this demand unloading facilities were 
improved at the ports of Santa Barbara and Hueneme. Most of the 
sardines trucked to IMonterey and San Francisco were caught around the 
northern Channel Islands and off the mainland north of Santa Monica 
Bav. 




Figure 0. Sardine lainling^.s at California poi'ts during: the past lu .sea.sonw 

During 1948-49 about 80 percent of the sardines landed were used 
for canning but in 1949-50 the proportion canned dropped to a third of 
the total received. This was due to a strengthening in the price of meal 
and oil and a major drop in the price of canned sardines. 

As an experiment in regulation of the sardine fishery the Sardine 
Industry Advisory Committee set up a temporary program of control 
for the 1948-49 season which was carried out by the Division of Fish and 
Game. Since this did not meet the expectations of the industry and 
proved very difficult to administer, the regulations were dropped at the 

* The.se totals include poundages used for bait and consumjJtion in a fresh state. 
They represent the final records for 1947-48 and 1948-49 and the most accurate flgure.s 
available at this time for 19 49-50. 



42 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

end of the season. Tlie advisory eomniittee also diseontinned its efforts 
to develop a lony-range program of iiiaiiagenient. 

The increase during the last two seasons in the tonnages landed 
resulted from the appearance on the fishing- grounds of two fairly 
abundant groups of fish, those spawned in 1!)46 and 1947. During both 
th(^ l!)48-49 and 1949-50 seasons, 80 percent of tlie fish came from these 
two year classes. The 1947 group was more abundant than the 1946 and 
will presumably continue to make a major contribution to the fishery in 
the innnediately succeeding seasons. If no new abundant year classes 
apjDcar on the fishing grounds, the present healthy condition in the indus- 
try cannot continue for any great length of time. 

As a result of the efforts of the industry a coordinated program for 
expanded sardine studies was set up under the direction of the Marine 
Research Committee during the P^ortieth Bicnnium. This unifies the work 
of the California Academy of Sciences, California Division of Fish and 
Game, Scripps Institution of Oceanography and U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service. Although initiated in the previous bicnnium the expanded work 
at sea could not be started until vessels had been purchased and recon- 
ditioned for the specialized studies. 

Routine sea investigations were begun in February, 1949, and have 
been continued on a monthly basis since that time. The division 's research 
ship M. V. N. B. Scufield participated in the first three of these cruises in 
1949 and occupied the station lines from Point Conception south to the 
central part of Baja California. After this time Scripps Institution and 
U. S. Fish and AYildlife Service had sufficient vessels to carry on the 
regular physical, chemical and biological sampling at sea and the N. B. 
S CO field turned to other activities of the division. 

In September, 1949, the M. V. Yelloivfin was ready for operation 
and she began the specific tasks assigned to the Division of Fish and 
Game in the cooperative sardine investigations. From October until the 
end of the biennium, with the use of sonar and recording fathometer, the 
YeUowfin located schools of sardines in Southern and Central California 
waters. Samples of the fish in these schools wei-e taker, and material for 
age determinations and food studies collected. \Yhere schools were found 
records of water temperatures, water samples and plankton samples were 
taken. The purpose of this study is to determine the physical and chemical 
conditions where sardine schools will be found, wliat kinds of food are 
present and if the sardine shows a preference for particular types of 
plaiiktonic food. 

In addition to the work at sea the staff continued its routine collec- 
tion of data for an analysis of the size and age composition of the catch 
and a measure of the success of the fishing fleet. Results of studies of the 
return to the fisherman based on his average monthl}^ or weekly catch 
had been published through 1942. These former studies were reviewed, 
continued through the 1948-49 season and published as Fish Bulletin 
No. 76, in the last six months of the biennium. Through the cooperative 
study carried on with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service the 1948-49 
and 1949-50 sardine catches were compiled by tons and numbers of fish 
taken in each age group. These tables were published in the July, 1949, 
and July, 1950, issues of California Fish and Game. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



43 



TUNA 

Heavy exploitation of the tuna resources marked this biennium. The 
general expansion of the tuna industry was on a cautious note, however, 
as prices to the fishermen declined somewhat in January of 1950. After 
reaching $340 for yellowfin and $320 for skipjack, the price dropped to 
$310 and $290 respectively Amounts paid for other species were reduced 
proportionately This was caused by the large holdings of canned tuna at 
the end of 1949. Apparently the fast expanding industry had at least 
temporarily supplied the market demand for tuna. Some of the smaller 
canneries fell victim to this situation and w<u'e caught with no workinu' 
capital to continue operations until thcur case pack carry-over w^as sold. 
Larger units in the industi-y with the advantage of national advertising 
had little difficulty. 

Other items contributed to the anxiety of the industry, such as: 
relaxation of the Japanese fishing restrictions which permitted ex])ansion 
to practically the full area which that nation formerly exploited; shi])- 
ments of tuna and tuna-like fishes from Australia, South America aiul 
the Central Pacific, besides those from Ja]ian; talk of canneries being 
built on tlie coast of the (Julf of Mexico; and threatened restriction of 
bait fishing by Mexico and Central American countries. This was more 
than a threat in Panama where our vessels were not allowed to take bait 
for some months. 

The stocks of tuna held good, although long trips to Central America 
and the (Jalapagos Islands were necessary as tunas on the banks closer 
to California failed to supply a large quantity of fish. 

The size of the tuna bait fieet increased from 136 vessels and an 
aggregate of 27,526 gross tons in li)46 to 225 vessels and approximately 
45,540 gross tons in 1950. in addition to the purse seiners that fish tuna 
during the spring and summer months, there were about 20 purse seine 
vessels that jmrsued the tuna for the entire period. 

Throughout the biennium the skipjack and albacore landings in- 
creased; yellowfin showed a slight decliiK^ in 194!) and the bluefin fishery 



1 


leo 


1 1 


1 1 1 


1 


1 


1 


160 


CALIFORNIA 


TUNA LANDINGS 






- 


140 


- 




/ 




- 


120 







/ 




— 


JlOO 

0. 




/ 






- 


80 


\^^ 


/^ 






,> 


c 
o 


\. 


^^ 






.^' 


= 60 
S 

40 


-X>=^ 


:^_ 


.— 


,^-^^' 


,-• 


20 




1 1 1 


1 


1 


""^1 




5 - w 


fO -* m 
V 'J T 


ff> 




1948 
1949 



Figure 7. California landing.s of albacore, bluefin, skipjack and yellowfin, 1940-49 



44 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



was almost a failure. The I!);")!) snninier fishery for bliiefin was equally 
poor with practically no fish lauded by mid-siimuier. 

Because of better facilities and an enlarged staff we were able to 
expand our tuna investigations. One trip with the M. V. N. B. Scofield 
was made to the Hawaiian Islands where much material was collected 
for an analysis of auy differences between the mid-Pacific populations of 
skipjack and yellowfin and these fishes taken oft' the coasts . of the 
Americas. 

Several trips were made offshore and along the California coast to 
determine conditions which govern the presence or absence of albacore. 
Fish were located offshore and just prior to the regular season but no 
albacore have yet been taken during the winter months. On these cruises 
gill net and long line fishing methods were used as well as trolling. 

A regular system of sampling the catch of albacore, yellowfin and 
skipjack has been set up to determine the sizes of fish in the catch. Pre- 
liminary studies of tagging methods have been made. In October, 1949, 
a meeting of all investigations studying tunas in the eastern Pacific was 
held at our Tei-minal Island laboratory. Similar meetings are planned 
annually to coordinate the work of all the agencies working on these fishes 
in the Pacific area. 

SALMON 

After the peak years of 1945-46, the salmon catches of California 
have dropped. The commercial catches of 1948-49 have been about the 
average of the periods since 1916 (Figure 8). The ocean catches of these 




Figure 8. California landings of commercially caugiit salmon, 1940-1949, showing 
poundages tal^;en from the ocean and from the Central Valley rivers 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 45 

two years were approximately equal, but the river landings of 1949 were 
considerably lower. The difference in the river catches was primarily due 
to a strike by the river fishermen in the fall of 1949. In the early part of the 
1949 fall season before the salmon had begun to appear in any numbers, 
the fishermen received about 18 cents for fish under 14 pounds and 20 
cents for those over 14 pounds, and evidently expected that this price 
would last through the entire season. However, on September 8th fish 
began appearing in quantity ; on September 9th the dealers cut the price 
to a fiat 18 cents per pound, and the fishermen promptly went out on 
strike. This strike lasted through the entire remainder of the season ; 
hence, the bulk of the fall run w^as lust to the industr.y. A few fish were 
taken by non-striking fishermen. A somewhat larger number were taken 
upon the orders of the union itself. Each day a few fishermen would be 
assigned to go out, make their catches, and deliver these catches to the 
union, which would in turn market the fish. The number of fishermen 
operating at any one time was small. The total number of fish landed 
during the strike was only a fraction of that which would have been 
landed under normal fishing conditions; but, of course, it is impossible 
to estimate how good the catches would have been had fishing operations 
been normal. Catches of the few boats that were operating and of the 
Division of Fish and Game boat Striper (which was catching salmon for 
tagging purposes) are not at all conclusive, but such catches indicate that 
the season would probably not have been much better or much worse than 
that of 1948. 

The future of the salmon run in the main stem of the San Joaquin 
Kiver looks bleak indeed. This is due to an intensification of the water 
supply problems which have ruined the runs for the past several years. 
In the Fortieth Biennial Report of the Division of Fish and Game, there 
is a brief description of fish rescue operations in which part of the spring 
salmon run of the San Joaquin was trucked past a dry stretch in the San 
Joa(iuin River. This turns out to have been a wasted effort, since it was 
not possible to get enough water to enable the young of these salmon to 
reach the sea in the spring of 1949. In order to avoid a repetition of this 
waste of money and effort, the 1949 spring salmon run was diverted into 
the Merced River instead of being trucked up the San Joaquin as was 
done with the 1948 run. This diverting was done by stretching a net across 
the San Joaquin River exactly at its junction with the Merced so that 
fish coming up the San Joaquin would be diverted into the Merced in- 
stead of having to back downstream any distance in order to find their 
way to this river. The salmon accepted this rerouting with very little 
fuss, probably because the small flow of return irrigation water coming 
down the San Joaquin was so warm that it would have been fatal to 
salmon to have had to stay in it for any prolonged length of time. Pre- 
sumablj^ the fish realized this instinctively and were willing to accept the 
cooler and more copious waters of the Merced River. Unfortunately, the 
salmon ascending the Merced River did not have a high rate of survival. 
This was because the fish ascended the river rather slowly and the great 
majority of them were too far downstream at the time when the irri- 
gators started diverting almost the entire flow of the Merced River. Sum- 
mer flows in the Merced are so low that salmon cannot or will not try to 
ascend the riffles from one pool to the next. As summer advances, water 
temperatures in the lower Merced become so high that the salmon are 



46 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

iuial)le to survive. The salmon Avliicli went farthest upstream found water 
which remained relatively eool all summer. In previous years, the salmon 
wliich went beyond the town of Snellino' found water cool enough so that 
the survival was high. Ilowevei-, in 1!I4!) tlie survival was poor except 
among the relatively few fish whieh got as far as the Merced Irrigation 
District dam about four miles upstream from Snelling. 

1950 started out to be a repetition of 1949 in that there was no water 
available for salmon in the San Joa(|uin River, and in that the Bureau of 
Marine Fisheries erected a diversionary net at the mouth of the Merced 
River and started the run going up that stream. The course of events in 
1950 was influenced by the outcome of a court trial in which the U. S. 
Bureau of Reclamation w^as sued to compel them to allow a sufficient 
flow of water to maintain the salmon runs in the San Joaciuin River below 
P^'riant. Without going into the details of a very complex and confusing 
trial, suffice it to say that the court arranged for the Bureau of Reclama- 
tion to release a flow of 25 cubic feet of water per second which was to be 
used by the Division of Fish and Game to get the salmon run upstream 
through a series of irrigation canals. One of these canals (the Delta 
Canal) crosses a body of water known as Salt Slough on a flume and 
trestle. The desire of the court was for the Division of Fish and Game 
to build a fish ladder at this point so that the salmon could climb from 
Salt Slough into the Delta Canal at the point where the two crossed. Salt 
Slough gathers a moderate flow of irrigation water from the farming land 
in the vicinity of Los Banos. Eventually the slough flows into the San 
Joa(|uin River a few miles above its junction with the Merced. The inten- 
tion of the court was for a route to be ])r'epared by whicli the salmon could 
swim up the San Joa(juin River into Salt Slough, up Salt Slongli to the 
crossing of the Delta Canal through the fish ladder to be constructed by 
the Division of Fish and Game and into the Delta Canal, up this canal 
to its junction with the larger Arroyo Canal, and up the Arroyo Canal to 
the point where it was diverted from the San -loacjuin River, thence up 
the San Joaquin to the spawning grounds in the vicinity of Friant Dam. 
ITnfortunately this court directive came too late to be effective as far as 
the 1950 salmon run was concerned. The order was issued in mid-May. 
Construction of a fish ladder of this height (12 feet) is a matter which 
usually requires many months of red tape and construction time. On this 
occasion the red tape was dispensed with in a matter of hours. Bids were 
obtained, one was accepted, and the ladder was operating on June 16, 
1950, about a month after the issuance of the court order. This was far 
too late. To have been effective the ladder should have been in operating 
condition about May 1st, a matter of several days before the court's 
totally unexpected action. As it was, the bulk of the salmon run went up 
the Merced River and only Sd fish availed themselves of the fish ladder 
which was constructed for their use. By June 26th it was obvious that 
the salmon run was over. Water temperatures in Salt Slough were so high 
that there was no chance of any more fish getting upsteam to the ladder. 
Hence, by agreement with the division, the Bureau of Reclamation 
turned off the flow of water which was being used for these fish. The 
spring run of 1950 was officially declared ended. 

The program for the construction of fish screens and ladders has 
received tremendous impetus from additional funds made available 
under the Wildlife Conservation Act. However, as in any other long 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



47 



range and large scale program the mechanics of operation have been 
slow of achievement. The engineering help necessary for the drawing np 
of plans for large projects is now more readily available than when the 
Wildlife Board first began to make allocations of fnnds. 

Detailed plans have bcH^n completed for the constrnction of two fish 
ladders on the Dagnerre Point Dam on the Ynba River. This location is 
abont 10 miles above Marysville. Plans also have jnst been finished for the 
constrnction of a fishway on the Sutter-Bntte Dam on the Feather River. 
This dam is located abont 10 miles below Oi-oville. 




Figure !t. Mill Creek electric fish screen 



The fish screen sliowii in Figui-c !) has been bnilt at tlie heading of 
the Los Molinos Water Company on Mill Creek. This site was chosen 
because of its suitability for f nrther experimentation on electrical screen- 
ing. EU'ctric fish stops so far have not been very snccessful. This screen 
incorporates several new ideas in its constrnction and hope is held that 
a trnly etfective electric screen may yet be produced. 

Four small wooden fish ladders were installed in gravel diversion 
dams along the Pierced Kiver. Their efi:'ectiveness has been donbtfnl dne to 
lack of water at the proper time. This lack of water during the salmon 
run is not so much due to lack of runoff' as to the mismanagement of this 
fiow. Almost the total flow of the river is imj^ounded early in the salmon 
season often allowing sections of the stream bed to dry up. Later when 
the dam is full, a larger spill occurs w'hich is often damaging to both 
small diversion dams and their fish ladders. A more extended period of 
water release would make a great difference in the salmon production 
potential of the Merced River. 

The Division of Fish and Game has worked closely with the U. S. 
Bureau of Reclamation in the designing of a fish screen for the Tracy 
pumping plant. When completed this diversion will be the largest in the 



48 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



State ; and as it.s water will be drawn from salmon streams, a screen has 
been considered necessary. This installation is also expected to save large 
numbers of striped bass and other species of fish. Bids have already been 
received for a pilot screen 200 feet lonp- to be located in a temporary chan- 
nel. This structure will be adeiiuate for the diversion capacity of the first 
three years of pump operation. The pilot screen wall contain several 
types of debris-cleaning- mechanisms and should give the information 
necessary for the designing of an effective permanent installation. Dur- 
ing the life of the pilot screen it is planned to transport the small fish out 
of the danger area by barge. 

The construction of a building at Elk Grove has supplied a much 
needed headquarters and shop for the men working on stream improve- 
ment in the Central Valley. This shop when finished and eciuipped with 
power tools will greatly increase the efficiency of the personnel working 
in this area. This installation was constructed with funds provided by the 
Wildlife Conservation Board. 

As part of an interstate investigation involving California, Wash- 
ington, and Oregon, the Bureau of Marine Fisheries has started tagging 
salmon in the ocean. Taggers have been working out of San Francisco, 
Fort Bragg, and Eureka. In addition, the bureau has tagged salmon in 
the Sacramento-San Joacjuin Delta as part of an investigation which is 
unconnected with the Pacific Marine Fisheries Commission. 

TABLE 6. NUMBERS OF SALMON TAGGED 



Area 


Silver 


King 


Total 


1948 

Eureka and Fort Bragg 


143 


662 

2 

2,573 


805 


San Francisco _ 


2 


Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta 


2,573 


Totals 


143 

69 
1 


3,237 

461 
371 
864 


3,380 


1949 

Eureka and Fort Bragg-- _ - 


530 




372 


Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta 


864 


Totals- .- -- ---- 


70 

28 
2 


1,696 

376 
809 


1,766 


January 1-June 30, 1950 


404 


San Francisco 

Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta 


811 


Totals 


30 


1,185 


1,215 



The numbers of fish tagged are shown in Table 6. 

An innovation in tagging methods, tried for the first time in 1949, 
was moderately successful, and was tried again in 1950. The second time 
it was an overwhelming success. Sport fishing boats operating out of 
San Francisco Bay were contacted before the salmon season opened. 
Arrangements were made with 15 boats to donate their time and catch 
salmon for tagging before the season was open. This included 11 charter 
boats, three private boats, and one commercial troller. Each charter 
boat's .skipper contacted some of his best customers and asked them if 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 49 

they would like to p-o salmon fishinji' without charge, the reservation 
being that they were to donate all fish for this tagging program. The 
idea appealed to the sportsmen and the skippers had no trouble obtaining 
full crews. The Division of Fish and Game furnished a minimum of one 
tagger to go with each boat. On a few boats, two taggers went along. 

On the twenty-sixth of March, 1949, this armada put to sea, and 
spent the morning and early afternoon fishing for salmon. Fishing was 
only fair and 69 fish were landed by the 15 boats. This operation did 
a great deal to promote better understanding between the division and the 
boat operators and the sportsmen, and it was decided to repeat in 1950. 
The 1950 salmon season opened earlier, i.e., on March 1st; hence, it was 
decided to hold "Tag Day" on February 26tli, the last Sunday before 
the opening'of tlie season. Operations were much as in 1949, except that 
the weather was a little better and the fishing was a great deal better. 
Twenty boats tagged a total of 365 salmon during the day's operations. 
Twelve fish were killed during the course of the tagging operation. These 
were all turned over to charity. 

The most important result of this ocean tagging has been to show 
that the great bulk of California's king salmon originate in the Sacra- 
mento-San Joaquin Kiver systems. An earlier tagging experiment con- 
ducted from 1939 to 1942 also demonstrated this fact. The present 
experiment confirms the older findings and conclusively demonstrates 
that if we are going to have a salmon fishery either in the river or the 
ocean, we are going to have to be very careful about what happens to 
the spawning beds of the Sacrameuto-San Joacpiin River systems. 

Interesting but much less important than the mass movements of 
salmon into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers are the occasional long 
range and high speed movements shown by a few individual fish. One 
king salmon went from San Francisco to southern Canada in 31 da.ys. 
Another made the trip to the Columbia River in 22 days. One salmon 
tagged ofl: Oregon was recovered in the Tuolumne River. Another tagged 
off the Washington coast was recovered in the Sacramento River. One 
tagged off southern Canada was recovered oft' New Years Point, between 
San Francisco and Santa Cruz. 

Silver salmon are much less important in the California fishery 
than the kings. The landings of silvers amount to only about 10 percent 
of the State's total catch. Tag returns show that the movements of silvers 
in no way resemble those of kings. Most of the recoveries from Califor- 
nia-tagged silvers were made in the waters off' Oregon or in Oregon 
streams. This northward movement shows in returns from both the 
1939-42 tagging and from the present tagging experiment. 

Another experiment involving cooperation by the States of Cali- 
fornia, Oregon, and AVashington was the marking of salmon in the 
rivers of the three Pacific Coast states in order to determine what streams 
were providing what percentage of the marine catches of salmon in what 
specific areas. This work was started in 1950. California's share was to 
include the marking of 200,000 hatchery-reared fish from Coleman 
Hatchery on Battle Creek, 200,000 wild fish from the Sacramento River 
and 200,000 fish from a coastal hatchery. As actually carried out, the 
work included 234,000 wild fish from the Sacramento River (marked 
by removing dorsal and left ventral fins) ; 235,000 from Coleman 



50 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

Hatchery (marked by ren]()vin<:' dorsal and riji'ht ventral fins) ; and 
187, ()()() from Prairie Creek Hatchery near Oriek (marked bj" removing 
anal and left ventral fins). It was expected that the wild fish could be 
caught by the use of seines, since this method of catchino- younp; salmon 
had proved quite successful in the American River and in some of the 
rivers of the San Joaquin A'adey. IIoAvever, when seines were tried in the 
Sacramento, they proved to be utterly inadequate as only a few hundred 
fish per day could be obtained. The method of attack was immediateh' 
shifted and 22 fyke nets mounted on rectauji'ular frames were built and 
set in the riffles of the Sacramento River. These nets did the job, but 
the proper setting of them proved to be quite a task. If they were placed 
in water which flowed too slowlj^ they did not catch enough fish. But, 
if they were ]ilaced in water which flowed too rapidly, they caught many 
fish but killed most of them. Intensive experimenting was required to 
find suitable places, but once these spots were found the nets produced 
an entirely adequate supply of good healthy fish. The wild salmon were 
carried to Coleman Hatchery, marked by the same crews tliat were 
marking the hatchery fish, and then returned to the Sacramento River. 
Coleman Hatchery is operated by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice, which donated the hatchery fish and the facilities for marking- 
hatchery and wild fish in tliat area. The C-oleman Hatchery staff took 
an interest in this work, made suggestions of great value and gave us 
a list of experienced fish markers residing in that area. The division 
wishes to thank the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and John Pelnar, the 
district supervisor who is in charge of Coleman Hatchery. 

MACKEREL 

The Pacific mackerel fisluny remained nt a relatively low level dur- 
ing the biennium. The 1947 year-class, which formed a large portion of 
the catch in 1947-48, continned to support the fishery in 1948-49 and 
1949-50. Landings in the Los Anueles region, which acconnt for virtually 
all of the State's catch, fell to less than ;:!7,0()(),000 pounds in 1948-4 li- 
the lowest figure since the fishery became of major importance in 193)}. 
In 1949-50, landings rose to nearlv 4!), 000, 000, a substantial gain but 
still far below the record season "of 1!)85-;J() when about i:30,0()(),()()0 
pounds were processed. Both scoop and seine boats were active. In 
1948-49 scoop fishermen caught nearly 28,000,000 pounds and seine 
fishermen 9,000,000. Preliminary figures for 1949-50 show roughly ecpial 
catches for each tvpe of gear. State-wide landings were approximately 
38,000,000 pounds" in 1948-49 and 50,000,000 in 1949-50. 

Routine sampling of the commercial catch continued without in- 
terruption. These samples provide the basic information regarding the 
size and age of the fish which enter the fishery. Studies of the age com- 
position of the catch for the period 1939-49 were completed. At the close 
of the biennium the data were being compiled in manuscript form. 
Results of the tagging program were published as Fish Bulletin 73 in 
1949. This program was inaugurated in 1935 and the last tagged fisii 
were recovered in 1947. 

The fishery for jack mackerel is carried out almost exclusively 
by seiners. Landings were substantial, though far short of the banner 
1947-48 season when the catch passed 142,000,000 pounds. The state-wide 



^ORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



51 





140 


— 


1 1 1 1 1 1 

CALIFORNIA MACKEREL LANDINGS 


1 1 

A 

/ \ 


— 


120 






/ \ 
/ \ 


" 


100 






/ \ 


— 


Pounds 

Ol CD 

o o 




x/^'X^ 


/ \ 
/ \ 


,^ 


c 
o 
_- 40 

5 


— 


/ 


\.^ ^ 


^ 




20 


"__ 


_^ _Jock ^^ocve-i -^ _ __ ^^ / 
-^^^ 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 


— 


^ 


r 


CM ro ^ in ^£l r-- 
^ ^J 'J -? ^ ■^ 


GO (T' 


o 
in 


o 

01 


- OJ ro ^ in ID 

^ ^ ^ "^ ^ ^ 

0^ <P (J> cr> (Ti CTi 


1947- 
1948- 


01 



KiGniiK 10. Landings (jf I'acific and jack mackerel Cur the past Id seascms. The 
mackerel season Is considered to start in May and end in April. 

cateli ill tlie 1948-1:9 season was nearly :)(i,()(){),()()() and in I!)!!)-.')!) about 
(i(),(){)0, ()()(). Los Angeles region landings jjiodnced hv far the greatest 
tonnage: a])ont 4:i()()(),()()() ponnds in li)4H-49 and over 54,()()(),()()() in 
194f)-r)(). Tlic IMonterey I'egion re]i()rted landings of api^roxiinately 
9 and 4 million pounds in the two seascuis and the (Santa Barbara region 
i-oughly 4 and 1 million. 

Investigations of the jack mackerel, begun on a limited basis in 1947, 
were gradnally intensified. The original progi-am inelnded studies of 
the size and age composition of the commercial catch. This work is being 
continued on a routine basis. In 1948, a study of the i)ox)ulations in the 
Central and Southern California areas was inaugurated. This led to a 
broader study of the distribution of the s})ecies along the entire Pacific 
Coast. A considerable body of data bearing on these problems was ob- 
tained and was being analysed at the close of the biennium. Maturity 
studies were started in 1949. These must be continued for at least another 
year before any conclusions can be reached. Finally, a survey of fishing 
localities is being made as time permits. 



BOTTOM FISH 

The otter trawl fishing for sole, sand dabs, flounder, turbot, rockfish, 
and other bottom fish takes a greater tonnage of fish than any other fresh 
fish industry of the State. The landings of flatfish and rockfish for the 
last ten years are shown in Figure 11, but this graph does not tell the 
entire story. Rockfish used to be taken primarily by means of hook and 
line, but a type of trawl was developed which was quite satisfactory 
for catching theme in quantity. This, combined with the almost unlimited 
demand for fish products during World War II, resulted in the boom 
of the rockfish fishery which reached its peak in 1945. The subsequent 



M 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 




Figure 11. California landings of rockfish and flatfish (flounder, sole and turbot) 



decline lias resulted partly from poor market conditions and partly from 
a shortage of rockfish on some of the banks. The increase in catches of 
sole has resulted from a steady increase in tlie number of boats, increase 
in the efficiency of gear, development of new fishing grounds in waters 
deeper than were formerly fished, and in the utilization of species for- 
merly regarded as trash fish. For example, the previously unutilized 
Dover sole now provides the largest poundage of any single species of 
flatfish. The increased use of this species was largely responsible for 
the fact that the cateh of flatfish in 1948 was the greatest ever recorded 
in the State's history. The industry is just beginning to take large quan- 
tities of scaly-fin (Bellingham) sole, another formerly unutilized species. 
In spite of the increase in total landings, the trawl fishery is not 
as healthy as it would seem. There has been a decided decline in the 
catches of previously utilized fish and to some extent in the Dover sole, 
a condition that has seriously worried the industry. Part of this has 
doubtless been due to a great increase in the number of boats, but part 
of it has also been due to unnecessary waste of small fish, and the resulting 
decline in the numbers available. Prior to l!i40, the trawlers were com- 
pany-owned, and there were relatively few companies. At the suggestion 
of the Division of Fish and Game these companies voluntarily limited 
themselves to the use of nets with a bag of five-inch mesh or greater. 
This permitted the escape of large quantities of small nonsaleable flat- 
fish. In more recent years the boats have been operated by individual 
owners ; hence, the old agreement between the companies no longer held. 
The boats have been using nets with a mesh as fine as 24 inches, and 
the use of such gear resulted in the loss of large quantities of fish which 



FORTY-P^IRST BIENNIAL REPORT 53 

"would have <ii'o\vn enmip-h to be saleable in another year or so. A result 
of this condition -was the industry's agreement to the passage of a law 
limiting otter trawls to a mesh of 4^ inches. The 4^-inch mesh require- 
ment now enforced corresponds quite closely to the pre-1940 five-inch 
mesh volinitary agreement. This is because in the older agreement the 
mesh size was measured from center of knot to center of knot ; whereas, 
the modern law requires that the measurement be of the clear opening 
between the knots. When the present law was passed, it stated that the 
nets should be five inches clear opening between knots, but this was 
later reduced to 4| inches at the request of the industry. It is too early 
for this mesh-restriction law to have shown any results in the improve- 
ment of the fishery. 

Work on the trawl fishery by the Bureau of Marine Fisheries has 
included a study of the trawl boat logs, going into some detail as to 
the species caught, the catch localities, catch depths, and so on. All this 
work: is necessary in order to keep an accurate track of the conditions of 
the fishery and its progress from year to year. 

Research work on the vessel N. B. ScofiehJ has included a study of 
the effects of different sizes of trawl mesh on the release of young fish, 
and some exploratory work to determine the fishing potential of the 
deep sea off the coast of California. 

Several species of bottom fish have been tagged in order to learn 
something about their movements and rate of survival. We have been 
getting excellent cooperation from fishing boat crews in the return 
of these fish. This is especially gratifying in view of the fact that on 
board a trawler fiatfish are definitely a bulk ]iroduct, and the fishermen 
must keep their eyes open in order to spot the tagged individuals. In- 
evitably some tags are missed by the fishermen. Many of these are found 
and returned to us by the men and women in the fish processing plants. 

Almost all of the returns of flatfish tags have been made within 20 
miles of the place where the fish were released, showing that most of 
the species move relatively little. Exceptions to this were two English 
sole which w^re tagged off Eureka and recovered off San Francisco. 

SABLEFISH 

The sablefish (block cod) fishery of the Pacific Coast has shown 
alarming signs of depletion. Concern for the future has led the industry 
to request that the Pacific Marine Fisheries Commission start an investi- 
gation of the species. The commission in turn has asked that the biological 
staffs of California, Oregon, and AVashington start this work. 

Before a suitable conservation program can be developed, it is neces- 
sary to know whether we are dealing with a single coastwide population 
of sablefish or with a number of smaller populations each of which re- 
mains in a somewhat restricted area. In order to answer this question 
all three states are tagging sablefish to determine the extent of their 
movements. As another way of getting at the same problem, the three 
states, Canada, and Alaska are all collecting sablefish samples for ship- 
ment to the California State Fisheries Laboratory at Terminal Island 
where meristic counts are being taken and where a comparison is being 
made between fish from the different areas. 



54 



FISH AXD ga:me com:s[isstok 




Figure 12. Fishing- for sableflsh. Hauling- in a long- line from a depth of 40n fathoms, 
with the aid of a line puller. Photoyraph hy J. B. Phillips. Monterey. California. 

March 1, 19n0. 

Work is also beiii^' done to determine the rate of orowth. weialit- 
length relationship, size at maturity, and spawning season. 

The California landings of sablefish in no way reflect the abundance 
of the species. As a rule small individuals (under five pounds) are not 
wanted by the markets, but during World War TT the markets were able 
to sell such fish and the drag net boats brought in great quantities. The 
postwar drop represents a return to normal marketing conditions. 

Sablefish are marketed fresh, filleted and frozen, smoked, and salted, 
and some recent canning of fillets has proved successful. The flesh is 
oily and of pleasing texture. This species is found from Southern Cali- 
fornia to Alaska. It is caught on baited long lines and is also caught by 
use of drag nets. It has been taken commercially in water as deep as 
400 fathoms and in shallow water, close to shore. In the winter, there 
appears to be a greater concentration of larger individuals in deeper 
water, while in the spring and summer there is a shifting into somewhat 
shallower water, with the smallest fish in the shallowest water. Spawning 
occurs mainly during the winter months. 



CRABS 

The crab fishery, although producing a luxury food, underwent, a 
tremendous expansion during the last few- years. Shortly after re-estab- 
lishment of the industry after the war, the total seasonal landings rose 
to more than double those of prewar years. San Francisco has been sur- 
passed by Eureka in total poundage of crabs landed beginning Avith the 



FUKTV-FIKST HIKNNIAL REPORT 55 

lf)45-46 season. This has been the result of increasing the total fishing 
effort in the Eureka i-egion where prior to 1944 the resource had not been 
fully harvested. During the same period more intense fisliing lias grad- 
ually increased the seasonal landings at San Francisco to about five and 
one-half million pounds which is about 2. ()()(). 0(10 |)()uuds al)ove the ])re- 
war level. 

Crab traps of stainless steel wire woven about circular frames have 
become the principal fishing gear. However, there are still many smaller 
boats in both the San Francisco and Eureka regions contributing to the 
total laiulings through the use of the hoo]i nets which once were the 
mainstay of the fishery. 

Since there must exist a limit to the amount of exploitation of the 
resource in relation to the natural ])roduction of the species, it became 
advisable in 1!)48 to begin a biological investigation of the crab to deter- 
mine if this resoui'ce can withstand the increased fishing pressure. 

The existing protection of females and the minimum size limit restrict 
fishing to a definite group of older male crabs. When these are taken 
crabbing must cease — but only until after the ensuing molting season 
which brings in a new group of legal-size crabs, rreliniinary studies of 
the present biological investigation are yielding information on the rate 
of growth and size at first maturity of the crab in California waters. 
Crabs about to shed their shells are liekl in fresh circulating sea water 
at tlie Steinhart Aquarium, San Francisco. The growth of these crabs 
after molting gives increments of the various sizes. The seasons of molt- 
ing for different size groups are being ascertained and considered with 
periodic growth increases to give data for construction of the desired 
growth curve. Determination of the size and age at first sexual nuiturity 
will allow an estimation of the possibility of the intensive fishing oper- 
ations i-esulting in iiTeparable tlamage to the resource. There is indica- 
tion that legal-size crabs have passed through two mating seasons. Thus, 
it seems, since natural production has opportunity for success, that 
only a catastrophe for the females or the young stages could harni the 
fishery for an extended period. 

PISMO CLAM 

After Sejitember, 1!)47, there was no legal commercial exploitation 
of California Pismo clams but limited quantities have been imported into 
the State from Mexican waters to meet the consumer demand. During 
1948 there were no records of shipments into California from south of the 
International Boundary. In 1949, however, the imports amoiuited to 
about 045,000 pounds live weight. Reduced canning is the major factor 
responsible for the drop in importations from a high of over 58,000,000 
pounds in 1945. 

In October, 1949, Fish and Game District ISA (the LeGrande sanc- 
tuary just south of Pismo Beach ) was open to the sportsmen of the State 
for the first time in 20 years. During a two and one-half month period 
following this opening an estimated 4,000,000 pounds were removed 
from this beach. At the same time that District 18A was opened, two 
other areas (one at Pismo Beach and one at Morro Bay) were closed 
to clam digging. It is anticipated that designated areas will be set up as 
clam sanctuaries and alternately opened and closed approximately every 



56 FISH AND GAME COMMIPSTON 

five years, thus allowing a given population of clams limited protection 
for short ]:)eriods. 

Pismo clam investigations, re-established in l!)4(i, indicate that there 
have been no exceptionally successful sets at Pismo Beach since 1946. 
A review of available information about the Pismo clam was prepared 
for publication in California Fish and Game, July, 1950, and a more 
technical report on populations, maturity and local growth rates is being 
prepared in conjunction with Dr. Wesley K. Coe of Scripps Institution 
of Oceanography. 

ABALONE 

The production of abalones has increased slightly over that of the 
last biennium. Because of the great increase of abalone divers after the 
war, the drain on District 18 was excessive and practically all of the 
legal-sized abalones were removed. Most of the abalones now come from 
the Channel Islands. The present diving crews are the old timers who 
have followed the fishery for years. Only a few of the postwar semi- 
professionals have stayed in business. A newspecies (HaUotis sorensenii) 
described from a few specimens taken near San Simeon has been dis- 
covered in commercial quantities around San Clemente Island. The 
center of the industry is at present at Santa Barbara Avhere a large 
modern plant processes the abalones as they are landed from the islands. 
Morro Bay has two processing plants wliich produce a small steady 
supply. 

OCEAN SPORT FISHING 

Ocean sport fishing has shown a contiinial rise in numbers of boats 
and fishermen since the end of the war. The increase in numbers of boats 
and fishermen between 1947 and 1948 was 21 and 22 percent, respec- 
tively, but the increase in total number of fish caught was only 8 per- 
cent. If the stock of fish was sufficient, the total ocean sport catch could 
be expected to increase in proportion to the number of fishermen. 

Spot checks of sport boat lamlings, made continuously since 1947, 
have revealed that the average catch of the nuirine angler is about five 
fish of all species. The number of anglers catching 10 or more fish during 
any one day of angling averaged less than 10 percent of the total anglers 
throughout the season. Seventy-five percent of the anglers caught five or 
less fish during an average fishing day. In fact, over half of the 234 boats 
checked during 1948 and 1949 reported an average catch of three fish 
or less per fisherman. 

Before 1949, holders of sport fishing licenses were permitted to take 
15 fish in the aggregate of certain species. Beginning in 1949, the regu- 
lation was changed to a bag limit of 10 fish of certain species, and several 
additional species were placed on a limit of 15 fish. This new regulation 
was intended to perform two functions : to help eliminate some of the 
waste of fish that often occurs when an angler returns with a heavy catch 
and has difficulty in disposing of it, and also to distribute the available 
fish more evenly among the anglers. This would be accomplished by 
causing the higldy successful angler to give his overlimit fish to those 
anglers that were less successful. Preferably, of course, it is better that 
an angler cease fishing if he reaches his limit, or releases alive over- 
limit fish. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



57 



There has been little ('han<i'e in the species composition of the marine 
sportcatch. The important ones are barracuda, the popular kelp and 
sand bass (frequently called calico bass), the many species of rockfish, 
halibut, white sea bass and yellowtail. Perhaps the backbone of the 
Southern California sportfishery is the kelp and sand bass. TTntil the 
spring' of 1950, very little research work on these fishes had been done. 
At the present time an experimental tagging program is in effect and 
a total of more than 1,200 fish have been tagged. This venture is a cooper- 
ative one between several groups: the Bureau of Marine Fisheries, sport- 
boat owners, boat landing operators, live bait dealers, a tackle manu- 
facturer, the Southern Council of Conservation Clubs, and the Sporting 
Goods Dealers Association of the Los Angeles area. Only because of the 
friendly efforts of all of these groups, and many individuals as well, has 
it been possible to put on this tagging )irogram to the extent necessary. 




Figure 13. Tagging rock bass 



It is far too early to explain any definite results, although information is 
coming in at an unusual rate. 

In keeping with a policy .set up in the summer of 1948, the bureau 
has maintained monthly news releases summarizing- the marine sport- 
catch all along the California coast. The value of such a policy is mani- 
fold, but most important it does much to convince boat operators that 
they personally profit by keeping and sending in catch records that will 
be used as public information. 



58 PISH AND GAME (COMMISSION 

LIVE BAIT FISHERY 

There has been little if any change in the past two years either in 
the manner in which live bait fishermen operate or in the handling of 
the eateh records that these fishermen maintain for the bnreau. The 
kinds and amounts of fish taken daily by the fishermen have been reported 
to ns and we have accompanied as many bait boats as possible during 
each season. On these trips much information is gained that does not 
appear on the catch records and at the same time good relationships are 
maintained. 

During this biennium, the bait reports indicated that practically 
no small sardines were caught on the bait grounds of Southern Cali- 
fornia. The total bait catch has increased and adult sardines form a 
larger part of the total than was true in the 194(3-1948 Biennium. 

SHARKS 

Since before World War TT tlie sluirk fishery in California has been 
primarily for the purpose of obtaining vitamin A from the liver oils. 
Within the last few months, this industry has died a rather sudden death. 
In California waters the vitamin fishery has depended primarily upon 
soupfin sharks. Dogfish were of secondary consideration. The soupfiu 
has been subject to a very intensive fishery and has shown signs of 
extreme depletion. Soupfin liver prices advanced to a point where first- 
quality male livers were bringing as nnicli as $1 per ounce. Even at this 
fantastic price, the fish were so scarce that many fishermen were dropping 
out of the business, being unable to make a living. Early in 1950, there 
were extensive imports of much cheaper shark liver oils and the develop- 
ment of artificial vitamin A. Between them, these two occurrences forced 
the price of soupfin livers from $16 per ]K)und down to about $2.25 per 
pound and made it impossible for the few remaining soupfin fishermen 
to stay in business. A corresponding drop in dogfish liver prices has 
made it a practical certainty that, barring a major economic upheaval, 
there will be no dogfish fishery when tlie species becomes available to the 
trawlers this coming winter. 

SEA LIONS, SEA ELEPHANTS AND SEA OTTERS 

The sea lion population seems to have changed little in the past two 
decades. A considerable increase in numbers has been noted at Santa 
Barbara and San Nicolas Islands which is offset by a decrease in other 
places. The increased activity of the Navy at San Miguel and San Cle- 
mente Islands has caused most of the animals that previously used those 
islands to move away. 

The protection given the sea elephants for many years in Mexican 
and California waters is beginning to show results. Several hundred can 
usually be found about the Channel Islands. Sea lion surveys in the 
late twenties did not reveal a single sea elephant in California waters. 

The sea otters, inhabiting the stretch of coast between Monterey and 
San Simeon, appear to be maintaining their numbers. Several of the 
animals can usually be observed in many of the protected coves in this 
area. 



VORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 59 



KELP 



Of the several seaweeds occasionally gathered, only one, the giant 
kelp, is utilized in quantity. Two firms are engaged in harvesting giant 
kelp. One is located at San Diego and ])r()duces alginates which are in 
denia id for a number of industrial purposes. Tlie second, at San Pedro, 
produces some medicinal products but the bulk of its output is powdered 
kelp used in mixture for stockfoods, esjoecially for ]^oultry, hogs and 
dairy stock. 

The financial return to the State from tlie tonnage tax on harvested 
kelp and the leasing of beds is small. In recent years the harvest has 
averaged about 57,000 wet tons of kelp per year. This is but a small 
fraction of the amounts cut dui-ing AVoi'ld War T. Tlie interests of the 
State are fully protected by detailed laws governing the leasing of beds 
and methods of harvesting. It is noteworthy that through the years no 
court actions have been necessary. 

The effects of kelj") harvesting have been studied hy various agencies 
over the past 80 years and the results liave been reported in Federal and 
State publications. This natural resource is unique in that utilization 
tends to improve the original supply. Supervised harvesting results in 
a more healthy growth in the beds with less breakage from wave action 
and less litter to wash ashore. \'aluable products are being produced 
from this resoui-ce without injury to the beds, to the fisheries, or to the 
i-ecreatioii;il ai-c.is of Soutlicni Oalifornia. 

FISHERIES STATISTICS 

Accomplishment in the statistical unit during the past two years 
has been possible because for the first time in many years the clerical 
staff quota was filled and there were men placed in training for the field 
work which had long been neglected. AVith the weight of detail lifted the 
supervising staff had time to devote to an overhaul of the tools for col- 
lecting and the mechanics for handling the record of the billion pound 
catch. Conditions had changed rapidly in the fisheries, in the fleet and 
in the industry in recent years and the demand for statistical summaries 
was increasing. 

After careful stiuly re\isions were made in most of the forms from 
which the fisheries statistics are compiled. Because these simple forms 
had been carefully planned they had met many of the gradual changes 
in conditions and given ade(]uate information over a long period of 
years. We were reluctant to make them more complex but the postwar 
adjustments in the fisheries and the industry had brought changes that 
could not be recorded on the simpler form. On the fish receipts, for 
example, it was necessary to get a record of gear on every catch because 
the fishermen were using so many kinds and changing gear so often that 
the yearly boat registration which recorded gear for each vessel could 
not give sufficient information to enable us to follow these changes. It 
was also necessary to ask for three locality records ; the water area where 
the fish were caught, the place of first landing and the final destination 
of the fish. At times the vessels do not unload at the cannery or market 
dock as they did in the past but deliver their catch hundreds of miles 
away to a barge anchored on the fishing grounds or to a truck at a 



60 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

remote wliarf. For similar reasons changes were necessary in nearly 
every form that was in use. 

The serial number on the Pish and Game boat plate acts as an identi- 
fying code ill tlie statistical system. The first boat plates were issued 
in 1931 and many of these were lost or painted over so that the serial 
number could not be read. During the war it had been impossible to get 
rust proof metals and the plates made during that time had quickly 
deteriorated when exposed to the salt water. In 1949, therefore, the boat 
plates in the series from 1 through 7000 were replaced without cost to 
the boat owner provided the vessel was properly registered for com- 
mercial fishing or had a party permit for sport fishing. 

Renewing the boat plates came at an opportune time to stress the 
importance of the boat identification on the fish receipts and the need 
for proper registration of the vessels. Dealers had become careless about 
identifying the vessels by Fish and Game number on the fish receipts; 
owners had neglected to register their vessels each year. Replacing the 
boat plates has produced most beneficial results to the statistical system. 
By stressing the identification of the boat by number on the fish receipts 
it has improved the records we get from tlie fish dealers and therefore 
reduced the clerical work ; it has stimulated interest in the boat registra- 
tions and the necessity for boat plates. 

In 1949-1950 there were 1,000 more vessels in the active fishing fleet 
than had ever fished in California waters before. Among these were 
100 additional sport fishing boats; there was a high percentage of larger 
vessels (164 over 100 ft. long) and more than the usual number {VJ.A) 
had come from Alaska, Washington and Oregon to join the local fleet. 
There was also a more noticeable movement of the vessels up and down 
the coast and the records of individual vessels were getting more compli- 
cated. 

Fish Bulletin No. 74, eleventh in a series of catch bulletins fostered 
by the statistical unit, was published in 1949. This bulletin presented the 
detailed catch statistics for the year 1947 which was routine, and in 
addition a review of statistics for the period 1916-1947. This gathered 
into one convenient place comparable records gleaned from many former 
publications. Members of the research staff analyzed the graphs and 
tables presented for both minor and major species and told the historical 
story of each fishery. Because of the scope of this bulletin it has many 
uses, one of which is as a source of ready reference for information con- 
cerning the less important species which receive little attention elsewhere. 

In addition to the record of first sale of fish to a dealer, the Bureau 
of Marine Fisheries receives monthly reports from the processors of 
the State. These show details of kinds of fish handled and the amounts of 
canned fish, fish meal and oil and other products produced. Formerly 
the data from these reports had been compiled into monthly summaries 
by the San Francisco office and released to interested persons. During 
1949 the handling of these reports was transferred to the Terminal Island 
laboratory and changes were made in the monthly summaries issued. 
These changes were based on suggestions received from members of the 
industry. 

Circular 23, compiled from the processors' reports for 1948 sepa- 
rated the record of the packs of jack and Pacific mackerels and gave more 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



61 



detail on the tuna packs than was eustomary. Circular No. 24 which 
covered the processed fisli for 1949 added a recapitulation of the case 
pack of tuna, bonito and yellowtail for the period 1918-1949. This sum- 
mary was presented at a time when the industry and the Federal Food 
and Drug Administration were cooperating on a program for standard- 
izing the tuna pack and this information was needed in their work. 

The catch in 1948 of 9()(),()()(),0()0 pounds was valued at $80,r)()0,()00, 
exceeding the value for any former year by $20,000,000. In 1949 although 
the catch was over one billion pounds the value to the fishermen was 
only $73,000,000. This reduction in value was due to a general reduction 
in the price of fish from 1948 to 1949. 

RESEARCH VESSELS 

The M. V. N.B. Scopchl was in service throughout the biennium and 
made the following cruises : 



Date 



Locality 



Investigation 



June 29-July 7, 1948 

July 20-September 13, 1948 

October 26-November 1, 1948 

November 5-22, 1948 

November 28-December 1, 1948- 

February 22-24, 1949 

February 28-March 15, 1949 

March 28-April 14, 1949 

April 28-May 14, 1949 

June 6-30, 1949 

August 8-September 9, 1949 

September 26-November 17, 1949 

February 21-28, 1950 

March 7-25, 1950 

April 8-23, 1950 

May 12-June 15, 1950 



Off California 

To Hawaiian Islands 

Off California 

Off Mexican coast ' 

Off Southern California 

Off Southern California 

Off Southern California and 

Mexico 

Off Southern California and 

Mexico 

Off Southern California and 

Mexico 

Off Northern California 

Off Northern California 

Off Central and Northern Cali- 
fornia 

Off Southern California 

Off Southern California and 

Mexico 

Off Southern California 

Off Northern California 



Albacore 

Tuna 

Albacore, mackerel and sardine 

Tuna, mackerel and sardine 

Tuna 

Sardine 

Sardine 

Sardine 

Sardine 
Salmon 
Bottom fish and salmon 

Bottom fish 
Albacore 

Albacore 
Albacore 
Salmon 



The M. V. Yelloivfin conversion was completed in September, 1949, 



and the vessel made the following cruises : 



Date 


Locality 


Investigation 


September 26-October 14, 1949. __ 

October 21-November 4, 1949 

November 21-23, 1949 


Off Southern California and 
Mexico 

Off Central California 

Off Southern California 

Off Southern California 

Off Southern California 

Off Southern California 

Off Southern California 

Off Southern California 

Off Central California 


Mackerel and sardine 

Sardine 

Sardine 


November 28-December 9, 1949__ 
December 19-23, 1949 


Sardine 
Sardine 


January 9-19, 1950 

February 20-24, 1950 


Sardine 
Sardine 


February 27-March 3, 1950 

March 13-24, 1950 


Sardine 
Sardine 


April 3-20, 1950. . 


Off Mexico 


Mackerel and sardine 


May 8-24, 1950. 


Off Southern California 


Sardine 


June 6-18, 1950 


Off Central Califorixia 


Sardine 









62 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



The investigations in the 8an Joaquin Delta have been o-reatly facili- 
tated by the construction of the new Fish and Game researcli vessel. 
Striper. This vessel is owned by the Bureau of Pish Conservation and is 
manned by a netman and boatswain employed by the Bureau of ]\Iarine 
Fisheries. His time is divided about e(|ually between the two bureaus. 

Tlie Sf>-ipcr is a 28-foot Frazer River tyi)e <>ill-net boat witli a power 
reel for windinji' up gill nets. Tt is equipped with bunks and facilities 
for cooking'. When used by Fish Conservation, most of the Striper's 




KicJLKK 14. Fish and Game boat .s7;-(;jf)- jointly ii.'^ed liy tlie Bureau of ^Aiarine Fislieries 
and the Bureau of Fish Con.servation for research in tlie Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. 

Photoyruph h>/ Ktamrr Adams. 

time is spent working on striped bass. Marine Fisheries uses most of its 
share of the boat's time on salmon investigation but has done some work 
on crabs. The boat has been used for tow net hauls, for the dragging of 
small trawds and dredges, and for gill-netting to obtain striped bass and 
salmon for tagging. The power-operated net reel makes this last opera- 
tion far easier and more efficient. The use of this power reel makes it 
possible for the operators to make as many as six comparatively short 
gill-net drifts wdiere a crew w^ith a hand-pulled gill net would find it 
possible to make no more than two long drifts. This means that the fish 
spend a relatively shoi't time tangled in our nets, hence are much less 
weakened by being held. A net is strung out in an appropriate place and 
allowed to drift for wdiatever length of time seems most desirable, usually 
about an hour, and then is picked up. To pick up the net, one operator 
steps on a treadle in the rear of the boat. This starts the big reel turning 
slowl.y and brings in the net until a fish is reached. One man can fish 
with this type of boat ; two men can both fish and tag if the fish are not 
very abundant. In the event of a heavy run of either salmon or striped 
bass, three men are desirable. 



FOKTY-FIKST BIENNIAL REPORT ()'■) 

UNDERSEA OIL EXPLORATION 

Tlie major oil companies continued their exploration for undersea 
oil deposits until mid-July, 1949. By that time all of the areas in whicli 
the companies were interested liad been explored by seismic methods and 
tlie connnission denied applications for more work south of Point Con- 
ception prior to 1952. 

The commission required that all exploratory work carried on be a 
joint project of all companies concerned. This prevented re-exploration 
l)y each individual company and did much to reduce the kill of fish. 
The Bureau of Marine Fisheries maintained an observer with eacli 
seismic crew during' all operations. The cost of the observers was borne 
by the oil comjianies. 

PUBLICATIONS BY STAFF MEMBERS OF THE 
BUREAU OF MARINE FISHERIES 

fliroular No. 23. Statistical Report of Fresh and Canned l''islier,\ I'mducts, Year T.MS. 
Cii'cular No. 24. Statistical Hejiort ul' Fresh and Canned I'^isiieiy I'rddnets, Year 1!)4!). 
Fish Bulletin No. (iS. ConinKin .M.-iiine Fishes of California. 15.V I'hil M. Koedel. 1<.»4S; 

ino p. 

Fish Bulletin No. (•;». A,i;e and Lenf^tii Composition of the Sardine Catch Off the 
Pacific Coast of the Fuited States and Canada, 1941-42 throiiuh 1940-47. By Frances 
E. Felin * and Julius B. Phillips. 1!>4S ; 122 p. 

Fish Bulletin No. 70. A Preliminary I'opulation Study of the i'ellowfin Tuna and the 
Albacore. By H. C. (iodsil. 1948 ; 90 p. 

Fish I'.ulletin No. 71. Growth of the Sardine, Sardiiioiin raenilca, 1941-42 tliroui;h 
194t)-47. By Julius B. Phillips. 194S ; IVA p. 

Fish Bulletin No. 72. Trawling Gear in California. I'.y W. L. Scotield. 194s ; (id i,. 

Fish Bulletin No. 7'!. Tasgins' Experiments on the Pacific Mackerel, Pmuhiiilophorus 
diego. By Donald H. Fry. Jr.. and Phil M. Roedel. 1949 ; C.l p. 

Fisli liulletin No. 74. The Conunercial Fish Catch of Calif(nnia for the Yeai' 1947 
With an Historical Review, 191t)-1947. By the Staff of the Bureau of Marine 
Fisheries. 1949 ; 2G7 p. 

Fish Bidletiu No. 75. California Sharks and Rays. I'.y Phil M. Roedel and \\m. Elli.s 
Ripley. 1950; 88 p. 

Fish Bulletin No. 76. A\erage Lunar Month Catch \\\ California Sai-dine Fishermen, 
1932-33 through 1948-49. By Frances N. Clark and Anita E. Daugherty. 1950; 28 p. 

Bonnot. I'aul 

1948. The Ahalones of California. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. .•^4, no. 4, p. 141-109. 

P>onnot, Paul, and Wm. Ellis Ripley 

1948. The California Sea Lion Census for 1947. Calif. Fish an<l Game. vol. 34, no. 3, 
p. 89-92. 

Clark, Frances N. 

1948. Problems Connected With the Management of the Sardine Fishery. Thir- 
teenth North Amer. Wild, Conference, Transactions, p. 339-347. 

Felin. Frances E.,* Julius B. Phillips and Anita E. Daugheity 

1949. Age and Length Composition of the Sardine Catch Off the Pacific Coast of 
the T^nited States and Canada in 194S-49. Calif. Fish and (Jame, vol. .",5, no. 3, 
p. 1()5-1S3. 



* With U. S. Fish and WMldlife Service. 



64 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

Fitch, John E. 

194S. Some New ;uul I'luisual Fishes From Southei'ii Califoniiu. Calif. Fish and 
Game. vol. :U, no. 'A. p. i:«-13.".. 

Use of DUKW's in the Fishery For liaskinj; Sharlvs, Cetorhinus maximus. 
Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 34, no. 4, p. 219-220. 

1949. Some Unusual Occurrences of Fish on the Pacific Coast. Calif. Fish and 
Game, vol. 35, no. 1. p. 41-49. 

The Great White Shark, Carcharotlon ctirrltdiias (Linnaeus) in California 
Waters During 1948. Calif. Fish and Game. vol. :',.'., no. 2. p. 135-138. 
Observations and Notes on Some California Marine Fishes. Calif. Fish and 
Game, v<d. 35, no. 3, p. 155-158. 

1950. Life History Notes and the Early Development of the Bonefish, Albiila vulpes 
(Linnaeus). Calif. Fish and Game, vol. .'!(), no. 1, p. 3-6. 

Notes on Some Pacific Fishes. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 36, no. 2, p. 65-73. 

Fitch, John E., and A. O. Flechsig 

1949. A Brief Account of the Monterey Spanish Mackerel {t<eomheromorus con- 
color). Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 35, no. 4, p. 275-280. 

Fitch, John E., and Robert C. Wilson 

1949. Observations on the Northern lOlephant Seal, Miroiuiga aiigustirostris. 
Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 30, no. 2, p. 192-194. 

Godsil, H. C. 

1949. A Progress Report on the Tuna Investigations. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 35, 
no. 1, p. 5-9. 

Hagerman, Fred B. 

1949. Large Dover Sole Taken Off Eureka. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 35, no. 3, 
p. 202. 

Tagged Flatfish Recovered at Eureka. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 35, no. 4, 
p. 328. 

1950. The Extension of the Range of the Deep Sea Flounder, Embassichthi/s hathy- 
hiiis (Gilbert). Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 36, no. 2, p. 165-166. 

Holmberg, Edwin K. 

1948. Deep Dragging by Eureka Otter Trawlers. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 34, 
no. 4, p. 218-219. 

McCuUy, Howard 

1949." New Type of Field Key Applied to the Flatfishes of California. Calif. Fish 
and Game, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 11-13. 

Mosher, Kenneth H.,* Frances E. Felin * and Julius B. Phillips 

1949. Age and Length Composition of the Sardine Catch Off the Pacific Coast of 
the United States and Canada in 1947-48. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 35, 
no. 1, p. 15-40. 

Ripley, Wm. Ellis 

1949. Tagging Salmon With Blowgun Darts. Copeia, no. 2, p. 97-100. ' 

Roedel, Phil M. 

1948. Pacific Mackerel in the Gulf of California. Copeia, no. 3, p. 224-225. 

1949. Notes on the Spawning Grounds and Early Life History of the Pacific 
Mackerel. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 35, no. 3, p. 147-153. 

Movements of Pacific Mackerel as Demonstrated by Tag Recoveries. Calif. 
Fish and Game, vol. 35, no. 4, p. 281-291. 

Scofield, W. L. 

1948. Do Lobsters Shrink When Cooked? Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 34, no. 4, 
p. 217-218. 

1950. Small Boat Stabilizers. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 36, no. 1, p. 53-54. 



* With U. S. Pish and Wildlife Service. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 65 

PACIFIC MARINE FISHERIES COMPACT 

As mentioned in the Fortieth Biennial Report, the state legislatures 
of Washiiio-ton, Orepon, and California enacted legislation authorizing 
the execution of the Pacific Marine Fisheries Compact during their 
1947 sessions. The governors of the three states executed the compact. 
The Pacific Marine Fisheries Commission was organized at meetings in 
Portland, Oregon, in November, 1947, and January, 1948. The purposes 
of the compact are to promote the better utilization of fish which are of 
mutual concern, and to develop a joint program of protection and pre- 
vention of waste of such fisheries in all those areas of the Pacific Ocean 
over which the states have jurisdiction. The fishery biologists of the 
three states serve as the investigative body of the Marine Fisheries Com- 
mission. Since its organization, the commission has had meetings in all 
three states which have been attended by the fishing industry, by official 
representatives of the three states, by the IT. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
and by unofficial representatives from Canada and Alaska. Since its 
organization, the Pacific Marine Fisheries Commission has : 

1. Published a 64-page bulletin on history and development of the 
commission and coordinated jilans for the management of the 
fisheries of the Pacific Coast. 

2. Organized an interstate investigation of the ocean salmon fish- 
eries of the Pacific Coast, including a tagging program of troll- 
caught salmon in the ocean and a marking program of salmon 
fry in the streams of the three states. 

3. Recommended workable sets of laws on troll-caught salmon for 
the three states. These laws were passed as recommended by all 
three states. 

4. Recommended legislation for the protection of the soupfin shark. 
The recommended legislation was approved by Oregon and Wash- 
ington but did not pass the California Legislature. Subsecjuent 
development of artificial vitamin A and tlie importation of less 
expensive foreign liver oils have combined to eliminate the need 
for soupfin livers, killed the soupfin industry, and eliminated 
the need for any further conservation measures. 

5. Inaugurated a sablefish investigation by the three states and with 
unofficial participation by Canadian and Alaskan investigators. 

6. Helped coordinate the bottom fish studies of the three states. 

7. Made numerous minor recommendations to the investigative 
staffs of the three states. 

A great deal of benefit has resulted from these interstate meetings, 
from the development of mutual understanding and interchange of ideas 
between the biologists and the industry and among the biologists from 
the different states. 

MARINE RESEARCH COMMITTEE 

In 1947 the California Legislature created a Marine Research Com- 
mittee to administer funds collected through a special tax of 50 cents per 
ton on all sardines landed in California. This committee comprises the 

3 — 49247 



66 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

President of the Fish and Game Commission, the Executive Officer of the 
Fish and Game Commission, the Chief of the Bureau of Marine Fisheries, 
five members representing the fish processors and one representing the 
public at large. 

The committee was organized during the biennium and functioned 
smoothly throughout. It helped to coordinate the sardine investigations 
being carried out by four agencies, California Academy of Sciences, 
California Division of Fish and Game, Scripps Institution of Oceanog- 
raphy and V. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 

Funds administered by the committee were expended to further the 
work of these agencies and used where most needed to supplement regular 
budgets. In the second fiscal year $97,500 was budgeted and the major 
part of this fund was expended on the various sardine research projects, 
with a small balance being carried over to the next year. 

In addition to furthering the sardine studies both by furnishing 
financial aid and by helping to encourage and coordinate the work of the 
investigating agencies, the committee held a general meeting in San 
Francisco on April 18, 1950. At this time the biologists explained to the 
industry at large the type of work being done and the findings to date. 



\ 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF LICENSES 

As the work of this bureau consists chiefly of supervising the print- 
ing of all licenses, their distribution to approximately 3,200 agencies 
throughout the State, controlling the remittances and closing out the 
license accounts at the end of each season, and other work in connection 
with license distribution, there have been very few changes during the 
past biennium. The work is chiefly of a routine nature. 

There have been a few changes in the law so that we could better 
control license agents in their handling of license funds, etc., and also 
a few changes in license fees. The nonresident hunting license fee has 
been changed from a $10 reciprocal basis to a straight $25 fee. The 
duplicate license, which previously sold for 50 cents, has been eliminated 
and the law now provides that all licenses or tags provided by the Fish 
and Game Code issued as duplicates require the payment of the original 
fee. The nonresident angling license fee has been changed from a $5 
reciprocal basis to a $10 fee. A new nonresident angling license has 
been established which permits the applicant to fish for a period of 10 
days from the day of issue for a fee of $8. This law has become quite 
popular with nonresident anglers, although the bulk of our nonresident 
fishing licenses are sold to the residents of Nevada, our neighboring 
state, and most of these persons purchase a full season license. A non- 
resident and alien deer tag was also established by law, the fee for which 
is $10. The fish packers and shellfish dealers law was amended, and now 
provides that only persons or firms dealing in fish on a wholesale basis 
are required to purchase a fishpacker's license. The old law provided that 
every person or firm who dealt in fresh fish was required to purchase 
a license. This law created a hardship on many of the fresh fish dealers 
and butcher shops who handled fresh fish only one or two days a week 
and they did not sell enough fish to warrant their taking out a license. 

The principal reason for changing the nonresident fishing and hunt- 
ing licenses from a reciprocal to a flat fee basis was that, although we 
had properly advised all of the agents as to the correct fee to be collected 
from applicants from the various states, they inadvertently were neglect- 
ing to collect these proper fees and invariably would charge the applicant 
the minimum fee, necessitating that our offices penalize the agents and 
require them to pay the difference between the amount that was collected 
and the amount provided by law. This created considerable difficulty 
on the part of the agent and it became very unpopular ; therefore it was 
believed that a flat fee would be more satisfactory. The nonresident fee 
now charged by California for both hunting and fishing licenses is no 
greater than that charged nonresidents by the states of Oregon, Wash- 
ington, and Nevada. Ninety-six percent of the nonresident hunting 
licenses were sold to residents of Nevada and Oregon. Sixty-five percent 
of the nonresident angling licenses were sold to residents of Nevada 
alone. The three bordering states — Arizona, Nevada, and Oregon — 
accounted for approximately 78 percent of all nonresident hunting and 
angling licenses. 

(67) 



68 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

During the bienniiim tlie Fish and Game Commission rescinded the 
order requiring the wearing of licenses on the outside of the clothing 
above the waistline when hunthig and fishing. No money had been pro- 
vided for the purchase of license holders so that the sportsmen could 
wear the license on the outside of their clothing. Many complaints were 
received from the license agents because we did not furnish the holders, 
and it had been recommended to the commission that this order be 
rescinded. However, many of the license agents are now purchasing the 
holders from the manufacturer and these agents are either selling them 
to the license buyers for a very small fee or are giving them away free 
of charge. 

At the 1948 Session of the Statp Legislature a new law was passed 
providing that every person who hunted pheasants must have in addi- 
tion to the regular hunting license a pheasant tag, the fee for which 
was $1. Due to the short time elapsing between the time that the Gov- 
ernor signed the bill and the opening of the pheasant season it was not 
possible to obtain a completely satisfactory pheasant tag, although the 
one procured was fairly satisfactory. The sale of the pheasant tags in 
1948 was not as great as had been expected, the total sales amounting 
to 171,352. 

During the 1948 hunting season for waterfowl the waterfowl man- 
agement area regulations went into effect. This act permitted the hunters 
to shoot on waterfowl management areas provided by the Fish and 
Game Commission. There were three types of areas established : the 
developed area where hunters were charged $5 per shoot; partly devel- 
oped areas, where the fee was $1 ; and undeveloped areas where no 
blinds were furnished and hunters were permitted to hunt free of charge. 
Boys under 16 years of age, when accompanied by a permittee on a 
developed area could hunt for $2.50. The number of permits issued is 
shown at the end of this report. 

During the biennium we experienced very little difficulty with our 
license agents in requiring full settlement on all license sales, and in 
closing out accounts. The amended law, providing that all agents must 
remit on all books completely sold not later than the tenth of the follow- 
ing month, greatly assisted our offices in controlling these agents. 
Although we do have laws governing the manner in which agents must 
account for their license money, the fact that we have 3,200 agents 
scattered throughout the State and that our personnel is cpiite small 
makes it difficult to supervise all of them properly. 

The premium on our deer meat permit bonds was reduced to $1 
for each $500 sold, and we have in excess of 500 locker plants and cold 
storage plants holding deer meat after the legal time that deer meat may 
be possessed by the hunter. 

ANTELOPE DRAWING 

In 1949, the commission provided that there should be a special 
hunt for antelope in the northeastern part of the State and that 500 
permits should be issued. The law providing for these special antelope 
hunts had previously been amended to provide that no person could 
apply for a permit who had received a permit in any one of the 10 years 
previous. This made it necessary that every application received in 1949 
be carefully screened — with 2,000 cards for persons to whom permits had 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 69 

been issued in previous years. The drawing was held at Sacramento on 
July 27th. There were 7,548 applications received. Of the first 500 per- 
sons who were eligible to apply for a pernut, 418 applied for and were 
issued permits, and 82 permits were issued to alternates — the last alter- 
nate to be issued a permit had a drawing number of 632. The number 
of applicants for the years in which there have been hunts were : 

1942 2,811 

1943 3,653 

1944 3,910 

1945 4,675 

1949 7,548 

CATALINA DEER DRAWING 

A special deer hunt was provided for Santa Catalina Island, at the 
request of the owners who claimed that there were too many deer there. 
The last day to file an application was September 28, 1949. The drawing 
was held at Los Angeles on October 5th. There were 7,919 applications 
received. Permits were issued on a weekly basis ; 150 ])ermits were issued 
for each weekly hunt for a ])eriod of 13 weeks. There were 100 alternates 
drawn for each weekly group in order to complete the issuance of the 
full 150 permits for each week's quota. In all there were 1,950 jiermits 
issued. 

ELK DRAWING 

There was also a special drawing for an elk hunt in Inyo and Mono 
Counties in 1949. There were 15,258 applications received. The last day 
to file was October 26th, and the drawing was held at Los Angeles on 
November 2, 1949. There were 125 permits issued, 75 for bull elk and 50 
for cow elk. 



The following tabulation shows the value of the various types of 
licenses sold in recent years. 

HUNTING 

Value Numher 

$626.6.S4.00 318.910 

780.10()..50 39.S.282 

'.Mri.mc.OO 487,.307 

l.()U>.G(l()..")U 507,068 

1,482,442.00 .504,021 

1,440.172.00 496,975 

ANGLING 

Year Value Number Year Value Number 

1938 $705,611.00 348,227 1944 $883,841.00 436,940 

1939 746,061.00 366.4.52 1945 1,120,661.50 557,536 

1940 791,472.00 390,-342 1946 1,-553,706.00 768,816 

1941 933,586.00 460,715 1947 1,793,368.-50 884,772 

1942 876,003.00 4-33,4-31 1948 2,931,724.00 960,146 

1943 - 899,782.00 447,352 1949 3,023,579.00 991,903 



Year 


Value 


Number 


Year 


1938-.39 


$487,763.-50 


252,117 


1944-45 


1939-40 


528,952.00 


270,095 


1945-46 


1940-41 


-565,395.00 


291.507 


1946-47 


1941-42 


643,700.00 


331,878 


1947-48 


1942-43 


522,985.00 


268,128 


1948-49 


1943-44 


557,254.00 


284,370 


1949-50 



1944:::::::: i7s:25o.oo :::: i"*' 318.748.(k. 



I 



70 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

DEER TAGS 

Year Value Numier Year Value Numier 

1938 $141,598.00 1945 $214,662.00 

1989 1.52.924.00 1946 282.0<;().()0 

1940 163.2S5.00 1947 299,610.00 

1941 173.699.00 1948 300..384.00 

1942 116.121.00 ( Citizen. 

1943 147.795.00 ,„„, o-,o^<onA .) 308.8.38 

Xun-Res. 

991 

MARKET 

Year Value Number Year Value Nuiiiher 

1948-49 $142..520.00 14,252 1949-50 $149,670.00 14.670 

PHEASANT TAGS 
Year Value NuiiiDer 

1949 $171,352.00 171,352 

TRAPPING 

Year ]'alitc Number 

1948-49 $1,272.00 Citizen 1,2.58 

Alien 7 



1,265 

1949-50 1.176.00 Citizen 1,162 

Alien 7 



1,169 
ARCHERY HUNTING 
Year Value Nuniher 

1948-49 $1.981.00 Citizen. 6.52. Alien. .5— Total 657 

1949-50 2.6<.)0.00 (Mtizen. ,S75. Alien, 1.5— Total 890 

ARCHERY DEER TAGS 

Year \'iilue Nuinher 

1948-49 $665.00 665 

1949-50 882.00 882 

DEER MEAT LOCKER PERMITS 

Year Value Nuwier 

Cold storage 

1948 $17,875.50 35,751 

1949 10,311.50 20,623 

Wardens 

1948 $1,241.00 1,241 

1949 1,196.00 1.196 

FISH DEALERS AND FISH PACKERS 
Year Value Numher 

1948-49 $16,265.00 Citizen 3.141 

Alien 28 



3,169 

1949-50 2,515.00 Citizen 499 

Alien 1 

500 



FORTY-PIRST BIENNIAL KKPORT 71 

GAME MANAGEMENT AREAS 

Yenr Vnlue Nuinher 

11)48 .$470.00 47 

1949 420.00 42 

COMMERCIAL HUNTING CLUB 

Year \'<iliie Nionher 

104S-49 .$700.00 28 

1949-50 7r.0.00 SO 

COMMERCIAL HUNTING CLUB OPERATOR 

Year Wiliic Niimher 

1948-49 .$2S0.()0 46 

1949-50 215.00 43 

WATERFOWL MANAGEMENT AREA PERMITS 

Year Value Nuinher 

1948-49 ,$2,.510.00 developed 502 

64:;. 00 inutly developed 643 

45.00 junior 18 



Total .$3,198.00 , 1,163 

1949.50 .$3,460.00 developed 692 

49:!.00 partly developed 493 

7-5.00 junior 30 



Total .$4,028.00 1,215 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF FISH 
CONSERVATION 

The number of California anglers continues to grow but at a decreas- 
ing rate. In 1940 the number of licenses sold was 388,742 as compared 
with 060,146 in 1948 and 991,914 in 1949. It is obvious that the big surge 
is over for the time being but the increase is still substantial. If continued 
for another 10 years at the present rate the total number added will be 
approximately 300,000, more than the total number licensed in 1930. 

In 1948 the increase in the price of an angling license from $2 to $3 
brought an immediate increase of 50 percent in revenue. This change has 
only partially been reflected in the money made available for the work of 
the Bureau of Fish Conservation. In 1940 and 1948 the bureau received 
for expenditure about $1 for each license sold and in 1949-1950 the 
budget provided about $1.43 for the bureau's use in serving each angler. 
A similar ratio is expected for the next fiscal year. So far the Wildlife 
Conservation Board has in addition provided $3,800,540 for capital im- 
provement, which is being expended over a period of years. It is obvious 
that the service that can be rendered to each angler for $1.50 is very 
limited. As will be seen from the report that follows, the work of the 
Bureau involves a wide range of activities. 

From the angling catch estimates based on carefully handled and 
tested postal card surveys it appears that in 1949 there have been very 
few statistically significant changes in the total number of fresh-water 
and anaclromous fish taken as compared with 1948. The numbers of 
various categories in 1949 are shown in Table 7. 





TABLE 7. 


1949 


CATCHES 


OF 


LEADING SPORT 


FISH 




Total 


Mean catch 
per angler 


Trout .. . _ -- -.- 


16,700,000 
1,750,000 
1,160,000 
2,430,000 
4,020,000 
3,930,000 
298,000 


38.7 


Striped bass _ - _ - _ 


10.6 


Black bass -- 


10.0 




23.1 


Sunfish 

Catfish .- - - 


35.3 

24.4 


Salmon 


4.4 



As derived from the Opinion Kesearch Center Survey of 1949 the 
interest in different types of fishing is as follows on a percentage basis : 

Trout and salmon 50.7 percent 

Striped bass 13.0 percent 

Warm-water species 16.4 percent 

Marine 15.3 percent 

No preference 4.6 percent 

An interesting by-product of the angling catch estimates is the 
probable number of license buyers resident in each county. Trinity 

(72) 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 73 

County is high with 32 percent of the residents having licenses, based 
on the 1950 census. 

In the 20 to 25 percent group are other mountain counties such as 
Siskiyou, Del Norte, Humboldt, Inyo, Plumas, Modoc, and Lassen. Most 
other rural counties fall in the 10 to 15 percent group. The lowest per- 
centages of license buyers are found in the metropolitan counties of San 
Francisco and Los Angeles, with only 6 to 7 percent buying licenses. 
All in all, about 10 percent of Californians now buy licenses and this 
compares favorably with other populous states where fishing is a favorite 
recreation. 

The annual production of trout has changed very little in numbers 
in the last few years. In 1949, 18,791,000 trout weighing 488,000 pounds 
were planted, which is about the total weight that can be achieved with 
present facilities. Of these trout 2,424,000 were of catchable size running 
from 4 to 10 to the pound. As was pointed out in a recent publication, 
although 83 percent of these larger fish are planted in the southern part 
of the State, the catch and the number of trout anglers is about ecjually 
tlivided between the two sections of the State and the total number of 
trout taken, both wild and planted, is about equal north and south. The 
ueAV ponds and hatcheries now being constructed will greatly increase 
the number of catchable trout and the areas in which they can be dis- 
tributed. 

The number of fish rescued was considerably less than in years gone 
by. There are no longer great numbers of catfish and sunfish in receding 
waters in the Central Valleys. In part because of dry years and in part 
because of water control at Shasta and P^riant dams there are few^er 
seasonal waters and fewer resulting fish to be rescued. It is very doubtful 
whether the rescue of these prolific species for planting in waters already 
carrying their capacity load was a paying proposition anyway. In South- 
ern California the greatest amount of rescue salvage and transfer of 
warm- water fish is required in order to supply stock for ponds and new 
and transitory lakes. 

REPORT OF HATCHERY OPERATIONS 

With hatcheries and residential buildings suffering considerable 
depreciation during the previous biennium, it became apparent that a 
large amount of repair and new construction must be done in order to 
keep existing facilities in operation and to add new hatchery facilities 
necessary to cope with the ever-increasing number of anglers in Cali- 
fornia. It was hoped that with the enactment of the Wildlife Conserva- 
tion Act in 1947 and the subsequent allocation by that board of $2,187,200 
for fish hatchery projects that a sound planned hatchery expansion and 
rehabilitation program could be undertaken. This was only partly the 
case, mainly because the Division of Fish and Game does not have its 
own engineering staff and must rely upon the Department of Public 
Works, Division of Architecture, for its engineering services. When re- 
quest was first made to the Division of Architecture for engineering 
assistance it was found that the division was completely occupied with 
work for other state agencies having a higher priority. It was not until 
the middle of 1950 that the Division of Architecture could undertake our 
first fish hatchery projects. 



74 f'lSH AND GAME COMMISSION 

Fish hatcheries operated during the period covered by this report 
are as follows : 

El Dorado County 

Mt. Tallac Hatchery near Camp Richardson (seasonal). 52 troughs, 16 tanks 
4' X 1(3' X 30". 

Fresno County 

Huntington Lalie Hatchery near Lakeshore (seasonal). 6 tanks, 16' long; three 
are standard width of 4' and three are less than 4' in width. 

Kings River Hatchery, 56 miles east of Fresno. 100 troughs, no tanks or ponds. 

Humboldt County 

Prairie Creek Hatchery near Orick. 80 troughs, five redwood tanks, 4' x 16' x 30", 
located outside of hatchery building. 

Inyo County 

Mt. AVhitney Hatchery and Black Rock rearing ponds near Independence. 
120 troughs, two circular ponds, and three rectangular ponds at hatchery, used largely 
for spring spawning rainbow brood stock. Two large rearing ponds and one brood 
stock pond are maintained at Black Rock Springs. 

Kern County 

Kern Hatchery near Kernville. 20 troughs, six round redwood tanks 14' in 
diameter, 30" deep. Eight concrete ponds, 80' x 12' x 36", 13 earth raceways. 

Lassen County 

Lake Almanor Hatchery near Westwood. 96 troughs, eight redwood tanks, 
4' X 16' X 30". located in hatcheiy building, and three cement ponds approximately 
8'x 30' X 30". 

Los Angeles County 

Whittier Hatchery. Six ponds, 100' x 12'. 

Madera County 

Madera Hatchery near Bass Lake. Six troughs, 10 tanks, 16' x 4' x 30". 

Mariposa County 

Yosemite Hatchery in Yosemite National Park. 52 troughs, six circular ponds. 

Mono County 

Hot Creek Hatchery near Bishop. 64 troughs, 35 rearing ponds, two brood stock 
ponds. 

Napa County 

East Side rearing reservoir in Napa. Placed in operation October, 1948. 

Placer County 

Tahoe Hatchery near Tahoe City. 64 troughs, no ponds or tanks. 

Plumas County 

Feather River Hatchery near Clio. 60 troughs, four circular ponds, 20' in 
diameter, concrete construction. 

Sacramento County 

Central Valleys Hatchery near Elk Grove. 21 bass ponds, 19 daphnia tanks. 
Devoted to the rearing of warm-water fish during the spring and summer months, and 
trout during the fall and winter. 

San Bernardino County 

Mojave River Hatchery near A^ictorville. 20 ponds. First four ponds placed in 
operation June, 1947. Construction of 16 additional ponds started May, 1950. 

Santa Cruz County 

Brookdale Hatchery near Brookdale. 40 troughs, six circular concrete ponds 
16' in diameter with an average depth of about 16". One rectangular pond, concrete 
construction, approximately 35' long, 12' wide, average depth about 16". 

Shasta County 

Burney Creek Hatchery near Burney. 100 troughs, no ponds. 

Crystal Lake Hatchery. 24 ponds constructed and put in operation October, 1947. 

Darrah Springs Hatchery near Paynes Creek. Five ponds. First operated July, 
1949. 

Sierra County 

Yuba River Hatchery near Camptonville. .30 troughs. There are no ponds or 
tanks at this hatchery. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 75 

Siskiyou County 

Fall Creek Hatchery near Copco. IIG troughs, nine ponds. Last operated 1948. 
Officially closed Deceml)er. 1949. 

Mt. Shasta Hatchery near Mt. Shasta City. 248 troughs. Construction of 16 
raceway type ponds started in May, 1950. Plans have been made for adding a new 
feed room and hatchery building having 120 troughs. 

Tulare County 

Mooreliouse Spring Hatchery near Springville. Six redwood tanks 14' in 
diameter, 30" deep. 18 natural earth-fill ponds. Put in operation June, 1947. 

Kaweah Hatchery near Three Rivers. 60 troughs, no tanks or ponds. 

Sequoia Hatchery near Visalia. 10 14' round redwood tanks, 30" deep. One rec- 
tangular pond api)roximately 8' x 200'. 

Tuolumne County 

Basin Creek Hatchery near Tuolumne. 80 troughs, nine tanks 16' long, 4' wide, 
30" in depth. 

Ventura County 

Fillmore Hatchery near Fillmore. Eight troughs, six circular tanks, 30 rearing 
ponds. 

HATCHERY ADDITIONS AND BETTERMENTS 

Darrah Springs Hatchery, Shasta County. Experimental opera- 
tions started July, 1949. Operations have been very satisfactory and five 
earth-fill ponds constructed. Plans have been made to purchase the 
hatchery site presently under lease and it is expected this location will 
eventually be developed into one of the largest hatcheries in the State. 
A constant water supply of approximately 30 c.f.s. at temperatures 
ranging from 56 degrees to 60 degrees makes this site especially adapt- 
able to the production of eggs and the rearing of catchable-size trout. 

Moorehouse Sjmng Hatchery, Tulare County. Experimental oper- 
ations started 1947. A spring-fed water supply of approximately 60 
degrees, while limited in volume, makes this station adaptable to the 
rearing of trout. During the biennium two dw^elling houses, a four-stall 
garage and a refrigerated food preparation room were built and other 
minor improvements were made. 

Mojave River Hatchery, San Bernardino County. Experimental 
operations, consisting of four rearing ponds, were started at this location 
in June, 1947. The number of ponds was increased to 20. This work 
was started by the contractor in May, 1950, and nearly completed at the 
end of the biennium. Two new electrically operated pumps with auxiliary 
gasoline engines were installed. 

Mt. Shasta Hatchery, Shasta County. Rehabilitation of this hatch- 
ery, which has been in constant operation since 1888, was undertaken 
during the latter part of the period covered by this report. This con- 
sisted of removing nearly the entire outmoded pond system and installing 
16 earth-fill raceway type ponds. A contract covering this pond construc- 
tion in the amount of $68,402 was let on July 18, 1950. Additional plans 
for installing a new feed room and a hatchery building with 120 troughs 
have been completed. Funds for this project were provided by the Wild- 
life Conservation Board. 

Mt. Whitney Hatchery, Inyo County. Additions to this hatchery 
consisted of a new feed room W'ith 60,000-pound capacity refrigerator, 
three new dwelling units and extensive repairs to ponds and water supply 
system. 



76 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

Black Bock Bearing Ponds, Inyo County. A long term lease on this 
rearing pond site was obtained from the City of Los Angeles on May 20, 
1949. Improvements consisted of two four-room dwelling houses with 
pressure system water supply and electric distribution system. Addi- 
tional improvements, consisting mainly of a by-pass ditch w^hich will 
facilitate operations, will be undertaken early during the coming bien- 
nium. 

Kern Hatchery, Kern County. Expansion and improvement of the 
Kern Hatchery was carried on throughout nearly the entire two-year 
period. The work was accomplished with Wildlife Conservation Board 
funds under the direction of hatchery personnel. It consisted mainly of 
building two new dwelling units, an extension to the hatchery building, 
and a new feed room with refrigeration facilities, and improving the 
water distribution system. 

Fillmore Hatchery, Ventura County. The water supply at this 
hatchery failed entirely when the Santa Clara River went dry in Sep- 
tember, 1948. In order to continue operations, it was necessary to drill 
two wells — one in January, 1948, and the other in June, 1949. Other 
improvements included four new houses, a garage and new hatchery 
building. 

Hot Creek Hatchery, Mono County. This hatchery is not served by 
a public utility, and electricity for lighting and food preparation was 
until recently provided by several small butane-operated Kohler light- 
ing plants. These units w^ere discontinued in 1949 when a 30 k.v.a. Diesel 
generator w^as installed. The hatchery building, containing 30 troughs 
and formerly located in Alpine County, was moved to this location to 
provide additional incubating and rearing facilities. 

Yosemite Hatchery, Mariposa County. Improvements at the 
Yosemite Hatchery consisted of removing the old deteriorated wood floor 
and replacing it with one of reinforced concrete. A new feed room and 
six circular ponds were constructed, a new roof was placed on the 
hatchery building, and improvements were made in the bachelor quarters. 

EXPERIMENTAL HATCHERIES 

In order to test the suitability of the water for fish rearing purposes 
before a permanent installation is made at proposed hatchery sites, the 
following experimental hatcheries were operated : 

Moccasin Creek, Tuolumne County. Experiment started December, 

1949. Indications are the w^ater supply is satisfactory and a lease for use 
of the property is being negotiated with the City of San Francisco, De- 
partment of Water and Power. Preliminary plans for a complete hatch- 
ery unit are being prepared by the Division of Architecture. 

Willow Creek, Lassen County. Fish rearing experiment at this sta- 
tion got under w^ay in June, 1949, and the experiment was discontinued 
in December, 1949. The high alkalinity of the water at this location, 
where temperatures were favorable, made fish rearing activities impos- 
sible. The site has been permanently abandoned. 

Cedar Creek, Mendocino County. Experiment started July, 1949, 
but interrupted when heavy storms damaged the installation in January, 

1950. Sufficient experimenting was done before interruption, however, 
to indicate that the water supply is suitable. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



77 



Tide Biver, Tulare County. Experiment started June, 1950, and 
being continued at the close of the biennium. Indications are this water 
supply is probably unsuitable for fish rearing purposes. 

HATCHERIES CLOSED 

Alpine Hatchery near Markleeville, Alpine County. Last operated 
1941. Hatchery abandoned and buildings dismantled and moved to Hot 
Creek, September, 1949. 

Fall Creek Hatchery near Copro, Siskiyou County. One hundred 
sixteen troughs, nine ponds. Last operated 1948. Officially closed De- 
cember, 1949. Buildings are in poor condition but station is being kept 
intact pending further studies of the salmon and steelhead situation in 
the Klamath River. 

Burney Creek Hatchery near Burney, Shasta County. One hun- 
dred troughs, no ponds. Last operated September, 1949. Poor condition of 
hatchery building does not permit further use. Living quarters remain 
occupied by personnel assigned to Crystal Ijake Hatchery. 

FISH PLANTING 

Increased hatchery production and the rearing of larger fish has 
created problems in fish distribution which were satisfactorily met by 
developing fish planting equipment, consisting of specially constructed 




Figure 15. Planting trout by airplane has been found to be a safe and satisfactory 

method of stocking lakes in remote areas. It is more economical and takes much less 

time than planting by means of pack stock. Photograph by Kramer Adams. 



78 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



tanks of standard mannfaetnre and employing- an improved type aerating 
sj^stem, utilizing the Venturi type aspirator. Long range transportation 
of catchable fish with these new units is now possible. The stocking of 
remotely located lakes in the high mountainous areas of California has 
for many years presented a difficult task, since this was always done by 
man and pack animal. Early in 1947 the Bureau experimented with 
planting fish by airplane. Experiments were continued during 1948. 




Figure 16. Loading trout for stocking'. The pickup truck is equipped with a recently 
developed 150-gallon aerated planting tank. Photograph by Kramer Adams. 

The use of a C-45 Beechcraft plane in aerial trout planting was 
started in 1949 and greatly expanded in 1950. The plane is e(|uipped with 
a tank with a trip valve seated in the aerial camera port. Fish are trans- 
ported in 12 light aluminum cans and the plants for each lake, of which 
three to five may be covered in a single trip, are loaded into the larger 
tank successively. The crew consists of two pilots and a planter in the 
cabin. 

All checks so far made both from the air and on the ground indicate 
almost complete success. Two barren lakes planted in 1949 were checked 
in 1950 and very good survival was apparent. In 1950 a total of 426 
lakes from Siskiyou to Inyo Countj^ was planted with 1,633,275 trout. 
The cost for the use of the plane was $2,477.50 — less than was sometimes 
paid to one packer in previous years. 

Tables showing the total numbers of fish reared and planted in each 
county and obtained through rescue work will be found in Appendix D. 

It has been found necessary to change the period of accounting for 
hatchery production from the calendar year to the fiscal year in order 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 79 

to make satisfactory cost analyses. Figures on costs of operation are only 
available to the bureau on a fiscal year basis. Although this causes a break 
in the middle of the peak of the ])lanting- season it was deemed advisable 
to make the change by taking an inventory of fish on hand as of July 1st 
in order to relate the production to cost of operation. Two of the tables 
given therefore cover the calendar years 1948 and 1949 and a third covers 
the period January 1 to June 30, 1950. 

REPORT OF THE ACTIVITIES OF THE 
BIOLOGICAL STAFF 

The preceding biennium, that of 1946-48, had witnessed the organi- 
zation of the biological and pollution control work of the Bureau of Fish 
Conservation into essentially its present form. During that period the 
division of the State into eight administrative districts had been com- 
pleted, with a biologist in charge of all fresh-water fisheries investiga- 
tions and an assistant hatchery supervisor in charge of all hatchery 
activities in each district. Man,y major and minor projects which had 
been put aside because of the severe limitations on both manpower and 
materials imposed by World AVar II were initiated or reactivated. 

With tlie basic organization completed, the activities of the biological 
and pollution control staff were accelerated all along the line during the 
1948-50 Biennium to meet the tremendous problems arising in the post- 
war period and at the same time to take advantage of the large sums of 
money made available for capital expenditures through the California 
Wildlife Conservation Act. These problems arise from two main sources : 
(1) Fishing pressures on angling waters resulting from a phenomenal rise 
in the numbers of anglers, and (2) removal of fishing waters for power, 
irrigation, domestic, and flood control purposes. 

In the postwar period the biological staff has faced a series of new 
kinds of problems which had to be met with new techniques and methods 
and in large part by personnel with little actual field experience. It is 
inevitable that under these circumstances considerable time was first 
devoted to an acquaintance with conditions by new personnel and to 
basic fact-finding. Of course, new problems continue to arise and addi- 
tional fact-finding will be necessary to meet these new problems and 
also to understand better the old ones, but already it has been possible 
to make major recommendations regarding both immediate and long- 
range problems and to start carrying out these recommendations. 

As the members of the biological staff have become acquainted wdth 
the problems in their respective districts they have been assigned an 
increasing share of administrative responsibility, so that in most areas 
they are now in charge of not only investigative work but also such 
phases of applied fisheries management as fish rescue, stream and lake 
improvement, and screening of water diversions. 

Obviously, it would be physically impossible for the two to three 
permanent members of the biological staff in each district to carry out 
by themselves the necessary field surveys of streams and lakes and other 
fact-finding phases of the work, to study and analyze and report on their 
own field investigations and those of other agencies (e.g., the voluminous 
data presented for comment and recommendations by federal agencies 



80 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

engaged in large-scale dam constrnction), to answer the numerous in- 
quiries which are addressed to them, to plan and carry out applied 
fisheries management, and to carry out various purely administrative 
duties. 

Rather than attempting to enlarge appreciably the personnel of 
the permanent biological staff to meet this work load, it lias been deemed 
best to furnish other help as needed. This help has come from two sources : 
(1) permanent employees from the hatchery staff, who carry out mainly 
such fact-finding work as counting spawning runs of salmon and steel- 
head and such ajiplied management work as fish rescue, stream and lake 
improvement, and screening of diversions, and (2) temporary employees 
consisting of Fish and Game Seasonal Aids and Student Biologists. Stu- 
dent Biologists are used to assist the permanent staff members in con- 
ducting stream and lake surveys and other routine field and laboratory 
investigations and in the case of well-qualified men occasionally also to 
carry out certain fact-finding projects more or less independently. Sea- 
sonal aids are used as needed in various phases of both the investigative 
and applied phases of fisheries management. 

During the biennium the biological staff was increased from 15 full- 
time employees to 28. The publications and administrative reports listed 
at the end of this report indicate by their titles and by accompanying 
abstracts some of the work of the staff; further description follows. 

STREAM AND LAKE SURVEYS 

Biological surveys of our streams and lakes may be termed an inven- 
tory of the waters of California carried out to secure the information 
necessary for their proper management. Such surveys are a continuing 
function of the biological staff' and form tlie backbone of the long-range 
program. In general, they are carried out as other duties pernut, but 
during the biennium intensive surveys were made in some areas, notably 
the following : 

Siskii/ou Couniy. The survey of the high moniit;iiii hikes of the Miu-l)]e ^loiiii- 
taiii Wilderness Area, started in 15)47, was completed during the summer of 
1949. In all, 79 lakes that have possibilities of providing trout fishing were 
surveyed. 

Tfinity County. The survey of the hikes of the Trinity Alps Wilderness Area 
was begun during the summer of 1950. 

Lassen County. During part of the summer a survey was made of the many 
small lakes in the Caribou Primiti\e Area and recommendations for manage- 
ment submitted for 36 of them. 

District 3. Surveys were made of 92 lakes and 42 streams during the biennium. 

District 6. In addition to checks on previously surveyed waters, new surveys 
were made of 127 lakes and 20 streams. 

District 7. During the biennium 134 lakes and 20 streams in Mono and Inyo 
Counties were surveyed. 

District 8. Detailed surveys were made of appi-oximately 75 waters. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAIj REPORT 81 

STUDIES ON SPECIAL WATERS 

In addition to the foregoing snrveys to provide general information, 

special studies were carried out on the following waters, not including 

Wildlife Conservation Board Projects, which are discussed in a special 

section of this report : 

Castle Lake, Siskiyou County. The pruj;raiii at ("astlo Lake is designed to find 
out what species of trout should be planted in similar lakes, and to study the 
costs of planting various species and sizes in terms of yield to the angler. 

Sacramento River Test Stream, Siskiyou County. The present objective of this 
investigation is to determine the effectiveness of planting fingerling trout in 
similar streams. Marked hatchery trout are planted and the returns checked by 
creel census and electric shocking. Results to date show that a very small 
percentage of planted fingerlings reach a length of six inches. 
Klamath River Investigation, Siskiyou County. This program consists of a long- 
range study of the factors affecting the survival of salmonids in the Klamath 
River system. One year is being devoted to the study of each principal supposed 
factor. 

Eagle Lake, Lassen County. This study was initiated to find ways to prevent 
the extinction of the Eagle Lake trout and to restore trout fishing. 

Lake Almanor, Plumas County. The study of this lake was started in 1041 to 
determine causes for the reported poor trout production and to measure the 
yield to the angler from plants of hatchery-reared fingerling ti'out. The study 
was discontinued during the war, before any results could be obtained, but was 
resumed in 1946 with tiie planting of marked trout fingerlings. Catch data are 
now being analyzed. 

Lake Tahoe Fishery Survey, Placer and El Dorado Counties. Field studies were 
conducted on Lake Tahoe during the summer seasons of 194S and 1949 by a 
college graduate student employed as a Student Biologist, in partial fulfill- 
ment of his requirements toward a Ph.D. degree. This work included studies 
of the food and haliits of the various species of fishes present and of their 
physical environment. 

Echo Lakes. El Dorado County. The very low trout catch despite heavy stocking 
in these lakes has been the subject of a continuing investigation by the personnel 
of District 3. Early in the biennium, limnological and population studies were 
conducted and in the fall of 1949 a fish trap was constructed in the outlet. 
Marked rainbow trout have been planted and it is hoped that recoveries of both 
marked and unmarked fish in the trai) will yield valuable information on losses 
through the outlet. 

Clear Lake, Lake County. A detailed study of the fishes and fishery of Clear Lake 
was completed during the biennium. This work resulted in definitive reports on 
the food of young black bass and on the life histories of the greaser blackfish, 
Sacramento perch, hitch, and Sacramento squawfish. Of immediate interest was 
an intensive study of the possible value of a closed season on warmwater fishes. 
This study was done largely at Clear Lake, but drew upon data from other 
waters. Tlie study concluded that there was no management value in a closed 
season. The Clear Lake investigation also led to the conclusion that the game 
fish population could be increased if the forage fish supply was augmented. The 
golden shiner was selected for introduction and a rearing pond was constructed 
and stocked with shiners from San Diego County. A detailed study of the effect 
of TDE on fish life and other aquatic organisms led to recommendations that 
insured a minimum loss to sport fishing when Clear Lake was treated with this 
chemical in 1949 to eliminate the Clear Lake gnat. 

Millerton Lake, Fresno/ Madera Counties. An intensive study of the Millerton 
Lake warm-water fishery, as a typical example of the large fluctuating reservoirs 
along the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, was started in 1949. Present evidence 
indicates a lack of forage fish to be the main factor limiting the fishery. At the 
request of sportsmen, and in an attempt to improve the deficiency of food for 
bass, a subimpoundment in which to raise bluegill fingerlings was tried, but 
without appreciable success. 



82 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

Rush Creeh Test i^irenm. Mono Count i/. Oi^oration of this project was continued 
through the hiennium. Results denioiistrate a high survival (SO percent or 
more) to the creel from in-season plants of catchable rainbow and a low survival 
(less than 10 percent) from fall plants of rainbow fingerlings. 

Fock Creek Stream Use Census, Mono and Inyo Comities. A stream-use survey 
and creel check was carried out on portions of Rock Creek throughout the 
fishing season of 1948. in order to obtain facts to support a protest by the 
Division of Fish and Game against the diversion of Rock Creek above Tom's 
Place. Information obtained indicated a total stream use of 29,548 angler days 
and an average use of 2.3.4 anglers per day for each mile of stream. 

Owens River Development Project, Mono and Ini/o Counties. Investigations into 
the possibilities for further fishery development of the Owens River were begun 
in May, 1949. and have been continued through the biennium. Findings to date 
indicate that this 150-mile long stream could receive much heavier utilization. 

Colorado River Program. Preliminary meetings with representatives from Ari- 
zona were held during the latter part of the biennium and resulted in the 
establishment of a joint fisheries study program in .lune, 1950, with one man 
from each state assigned to the program. 

^^alton »S'e«, Imperial County. An investigation of the commercial mullet fishery 
was continued through the biennium. A program for the introduction of game 
fish and the necessary forage fish to support them was outlined and eifectuated, 
with three introductions of forage fish and an introduction of game fish from 
Mexican waters ; the latter was made jointly with the Bureau of Marine 
Fisheries. 

STATE-WIDE ANGLING SURVEYS 

A very intensive double survey of 1948 angling was made. It con- 
sisted of the usual postal card survey and an additional personal inter- 
view survey. Results showed conclusively that iionresponse to postal card 
questionnaires in the routine annual postal card survey was not a source 
of major error, which placed these surveys on a much firmer foundation. 
A restricted postal card survey of 1949 angling was made to maintain 
continuity in state-wide catch and angling trends. Results of these two 
surveys have been published in California Fish and Game. 

CREEL CENSUSES 

Creel censuses are a common method of finding out the results being 
obtained by stocking, of measuring the trends in the quality of angling 
in a given water, and of obtaining' similar information useful in laying 
out management policies. During the biennium, principal creel censuses 
were carried out on the following waters : 

Name of water County Name of ivater County 

Klamath River Siskiyou County Conn Valley Reservoir Napa County 

Shasta River Siskiyou County Millerton Lake 

Shasta Lake Shasta County Fresno and Madera Counties 

Lake Almanor Plumas County Rock Creek Inyo and Mono Counties 

Truckee River Nevada County Crowley Lake Mono County 

Upper Truckee River_El Dorado County Tapper Rush Creek Mono County 

Donner Lake Nevada County Hume Lake Fresno County 

Bowman Lake Area Nevada County Sequoia Lake Fresno County 

Lake Pillsbury Lake County 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 83 

TEST WATERS 

Although much useful information can be obtained from creel cen- 
suses of the type previously described, it is usually difficult to contact 
all anglers throughout the season and so obtain information on total 
yields from different lots of planted fish. 8uch information must be 
obtained at "test" waters: streams and lakes where studies can be made 
under controlled conditions. 

The major test lake studied during the biennium was Castle Lake 
in Siskiyou County. A summary of results obtained there and at other 
lakes in California will be published in a forthcoming issue of California 
Fish and Game. 

fStudies at Rush Creek Test Stream in Mono County and Sacramento 
River Test Stream in Siskiyou County, initiated in 1947 and 1948, 
respectively, were continued during the biennium. 

STREAM AND LAKE IMPROVEMENT 

FISH SCREENS 

The stream improvement headquarters at Yreka, Siskiyou County, 
continued as the center of fisli screen activities conducted by the Bureau 
of Fish Conservation. This has been supplemented by a small screen 
maintenance shop in Weaverville, to service installations in Trinity 
C'Ounty. 

The Yreka shoji instaHed screens mainly in the Klamatii and Trinity 
drainages, but also constructed a few screens for use in other parts of 
the State. 

Perhaps the outstanding achievement of the Yreka shop has been 
the creation and development of a new type of fish screen known as 
the "perforated plate screen." This type of screen is fully described 
in an article in the October, 1950, issue of California Fish and Game. 
It has now been thoroughly tested and is widely recognized as the best 
type which has ever been devised for irrigation diversions. Screens of 
this type are now being installed in all diversions in Bureau of Fish 
Conservation District 1. 

An office building for use by the fish screen foreman and the local 
biologist was constructed at the Yreka headquarters during the biennium. 

FISHWAYS 

Existing fishways in District 1 were maintained by personnel from 
the Yreka headquarters and the Weaverville shop, and plans were drawn 
for three new fishways which will be constructed in the near future. 
Tests were made of fishway models of a new type, which may be useful 
at certain obstructions. Repairs and minor alterations were also made 
to a few fishways by other personnel of the Bureau. 

BARRIER REMOVAL 

The removal of abandoned dams to permit salmon and steelhead to 
reach important spawning areas has progressed very satisfactorily in 
tributaries of the Klamath and Trinity Rivers, with five dams removed 
during the biennium. In addition, two log jam barriers were removed 
from these tributaries. 



84 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

The stream clearance prog'ram of the Bureau of Fish Conservation, 
wliich in the main previously had been confined to District 1, was ex- 
panded considerably during the biennium. A general stream clearance 
program was started in the northern part of District 5 during the sum- 
mer of 1950 and the crew doing this work is being equipped with equip- 
ment as rapidly as funds permit. The most important project of this 
creAv during its first season consisted of the removal of the dam on the 
Elk River at Falk. Humboldt County. This dam was built in 1883 and 
some of the logs were four feet in diameter and 25 feet long. In the 
entire ►State, seven dams were removed, 11 barriers were reduced, and 
seven log jams were removed during the biennium. 

IMPROVEMENT DEVICES 

Structures such as deflectors in streams and brush shelters in lakes 
have not been generally built in California, since considerable doubt has 
existed that such devices produce economically justifiable results. How- 
ever, some counties appropriated funds from their share of fish and 
game fine moneys for stream improvement and our personnel cooperated 
with sportsmen's groups and other local interests in designing, install- 
ing, and testing small rock and masonry dams in streams with low 
summer flows. For example, a series of 57 sucli dams was built in Holy 
Jim Creek, Orange County, principally to create pool areas. Advice was 
also furnished to the Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, re- 
garding utilization of existing trees to create brush shelters in pi-oposed 
large reservoirs. 

AQUATIC WEED CONTROL 

Aquatic weeds do not form a problem in the great majority of 
California fishing waters. However, members of the biological staff were 
called upon for advice and assistance in a number of troublesome in- 
stances, especially in Southern California. At Twin Lakes near Mam- 
moth, Mono County, personnel of District 7 applied 900 pounds of 
sodium arsenite to dense plant masses choking areas which were untreated 
in the initial control work during the fall of 1947. 

WILDLIFE CONSERVATION BOARD STREAM AND LAKE 
IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS 

In addition to the work described above, some stream and lake 
improvement was initiated or completed M'ith funds allocated by the 
Wildlife Conservation Board, including two barrier dams and two flow 
maintenance dams at the outlets of lakes. For further information, 
refer to the section on AVildlife Conservation Board Projects. 

CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION OF LAKES 

During the biennium approximately 1,755 acres in total lake area 
and over 70 miles of tributary streams were chemically treated to elim- 
inate rough fish which had so overrun these waters that sport fishing 
was practically destroyed in them and were then restocked with game 
fish. Some of the waters treated were reservoirs which had been drawn 
down far below their maximum and normal levels, so in effect a much 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



85 



greater amount of water was rehabilitated. Tlie following waters were 
treated : 



Name of water 


County 


Surface area in acres 


Date 


Little Medicine Lake 


Siskiyou 

Nevada.. . 


3.6 

7 

5 (est.) 
12 
40 
20* 

2 
21 
7.5 
1.5 
37.4 
12 

24.2 

233 

18 

175 

375 

1.2 

600 

90 

50 

20 


July 25, 30, 1948 
Aug. 21, 1948 
Aug. 29, 1948 
Sept. 9-10, 1948 
Oct. 16-17, 1948 
Nov. 1948 


Little Catfish Lake 


Catfish Lake .. _ 




Lola Montez Lakes _ _ _. 


Nevada 


Morris Lake 

Jenks Lake . . _ . 


Plumas 

San Bernardino 

Marin 

Los Angeles 

Los Angeles 


Bon Tempe Reservoir 

San Gabriel Reservoir 

Jackson Lake 


Nov. 8, 1948 
Nov. 9, 1948 
Nov 23-24 1948 


Lake Hinman 

Crystal Lake 

Richardson Lake. . _ 


Napa 

Shasta 

El Dorado 


July 1, 1949 
July 12-15, 1949 
Aug. 20, 1949 
Aug. 21, 1949 
Sept. 12, 1949 
Sept. 21-23, 1949 
Oct. 1949 
Oct. 18-22, 1949 


Miller Lake 


Placer 

Mono 

Mono 

Lassen 

San Francisco 

San Bernardino 

Mono 

Los Angeles 

Los Angeles 

Los Angeles 


Upper Twin Lake 

Tamarack Lake 

Blue Lake 

Lakes Merced . _ 


Dollar Lake 

Bridgeport Reservoir 

Lake Elizabeth 


Nov. 2, 1949 
Nov. 7-9, 1949 
Nov. 25-26, 1949 


Lake Hughes 

Lake Munz 


Nov. 25-26, 1949 
Nov 25-26 1949 








1,755.4 





* One-fourth acre-foot when treated. 



Rock masonry barrier dams were constructed on the outlet streams 
of Richardson and Miller Lakes, to prevent re-entry of rough fish into 
the lakes. 

FISH RESCUE 

The rescue of game fish from drying waters and their transfer to 
safe waters is carried on each year throughout the State. In some areas 
such work is needed only occasionally, as when a reservoir is drained for 
repair or examination of the outlet structure at the dam. Unusual or 
isolated cases of this sort are assigned to crews recruited from one of 
the hatcheries, or are taken care of by state wardens or sportsmen in 
cooperation with the Bureau of Fish Conservation. In other areas, how- 
ever, large-scale fish rescue is required annually and forms a regular 
part of the program of the Bureau. This is true in some of the steelhead 
and salmon waters, and here this work has been placed under the super- 
vision of the biological staff. The fish rescued are tabulated in Appen- 
dix D. 

FISH INTRODUCTIONS 

If an existing fishery is not producing results commensurate with 
expectations, there frequently arises a great hue and cry for the intro- 
duction of some exotic species. Some sad experiences resulting from such 
introductions many years ago have taught us to exercise extreme caution 
in making any new ones. It is therefore the policy of the Bureau of Fish 
Conservation to seek first other means of producing satisfactory angling 
and to introduce a new kind of fish into a body of water only if the facts 
indicate that it will fill a previously unoccupied niche in the economy 



8(3 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

of that water. In several studies all available evidence has indicated that 

addition of a species Avonld improve aiioiing, and dnring the bienninm 

the following important introductions were made : 

Largemouth black bass into Shasta Lake, Shasta County, to provide a suitable 
warm-water game fish (April. 1040). These fish are now spawning in the 
lake, growing satisfactorily, and already producing some fishing. 

Kamloops rainbow trout into Shasta Lake, Shasta County, carried out by the 
local sportsmen with the aid of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the 
California Division of Fish and Game ; the sportsmen believed that this sub- 
species of rainbow would grow faster and be a better game fish than the native 
rainbows. 

Kokanee red salmon into Lake Tahoe, Placer and El Dorado Counties, to pro- 
vide forage for the lake trout (mackinaw) (1040 and 1050). 

Greaser blackfish into East Park Reservoir, Colusa County, to provide forage 
for the warm-water game fishes present. 

Five lakes of the Hooper Creek drainage, Fresno County, were planted with 
wild, adult golden trout obtained from the adjacent Bear Creek drainage. This 
plant was made at the expense of the Southern California Edison Company 
as part of its special use permit to divert Hooper Creek. 

WATER USE PROJECTS 

The continued rapid expansion of activity in the hydroelectric, 
irrigation storage, and flood control fields by governmental agencies and 
corporations in California has provided the fishery interests with a host 
of problems. With water as vital as it is to the economy of the State, it 
is small wojider tiiat the agencies coustructhig major dams and reservoirs 
have been reluctant to look with favor on the release or reservation of 
water for fish and fishing. However, during the bienninm encouraging 
progress has been made toward the recognition of fisheries interests in 
the utilization of water. For example, a release of a minimum flow of 
20 second-feet of water was secured below a new dam on the San Joaquin 
River, whereas the release below an old dam just 11 miles upstream is 
only 3 second-feet. In most recent projects the protection of fish life has 
been included as an integral part of the planning, instead of being thrown 
in as an afterthought, as was so often the case in the past. 

Some of the major developments which have received study by the 
biological staff and for which we have submitted recommendations for 
fishery protection during the bienninm are the following : 

Klamath River, Siskiyou County. California-Oregon Power Company. Hydro- 
electric power production causing fluctuation of river level and subsequent 
stranding of salmonid fishes. 

Trinity River, Trinity County. U. S. Bureau of Reclamation. Proposed dams 
at Fairview and Lewiston for diversion of water to Sacramento River. Such 
diversion would greatly affect salmonid fishes below. 

Feather River, Butte County. Oroville (or Bidwell Bar) Dam site. Hydro- 
electric and irrigation water storage dam with powerhouse and canals. Will 
affect sections of the North, Middle, and South Forks of the Feather River 
and will cut off considerable salmon and steelhead spawning grounds. 

Feather River, North Fork, Plumas County. Pacific Gas and Electric Com- 
pany. Cre.sta and Rock Creek hydroelectric power dams and tunnels, affecting 
sections of the North Fork of the Feather River. 

Feather River, South Fork, Butte County. Oroville-Wyandotte Diversion Dam. 
Barrier to salmon and steelhead. Recommendations made for ladder. 



PORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 87 

Feather Ifirer. South Fork. PlumiiH Voiinti/. Wyandotte Irrigation District. 
Hydroelectric power ;nid irrigation project involving tvi'O dams (at Little 
Grass Valley and above present Lost Creek Reservoir) with storage capacity 
of 120,000 acre feet with accompanying conduits and powerhouses. 

Lake AJmanor, Plumas County. Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Dam 
forming Lake Almanor, a storage reservoir on the North Fork of the Feather 
River. The company plans to raise this reservoir to an elevation of 4,500 feet 
if conditions are found to be safe. Exploration drilling at the dam now in 
progress. 

Sacramento River Canals, Tehama, Glenn and Butte Counties. U. S. Bureau 
of Reclamation. Irrigation project with power and pumping features. A study 
of the possibility of utilizing about 120 miles of proposed canals diverting 
water from the Sacramento River for producti\e trout water open to public 
fishing is being cniKluctcd in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and 
the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 

Sacramento River, Tehama County. U. S. Corps of Engineers. Storage reser- 
voir at Iron Canyon. 

Keswick Dam, Shasta County. U. S. Bureau of Reclamation. Fluctuation 
control dam for Shasta Dam. This problem is complicated by copper pollution. 

Silver Creek, El Dorado County. U. S. Bureau of Reclamation. Union Valley 
dam, Ice House Diversion dam, several power houses and minor diversion 
dams which would affect South Fork Silver, Big Silver, and main Silver 
creeks have been pi'uposed. 

Middle Fork Stairislaus River, Tuolumne County. South San Joaquin and 
Oakdale Irrigation Districts. Hydroelectric power and irrigation projects 
involving large dams and reservoirs at Beardsley and Donnells Flats, with 
accompanying conduits and powerhouses, which would affect sections of the 
Middle Fork Stanislaus River. 

Park Creek, El Dorado County. U. S. Bureau of Reclamation. Proposed Sly 
Park Reservoir and Camp Creek diversion for irrigation and domestic water 
supplies. 

North Fork Stanislaus River, Tuolumne County. Pacific Gas and Electric 
Company. Involving Federal Power Commission licensing of existing dams at 
Lake Alpine, Union, I'tica, and Hunters Reservoirs for hydroelectric power 
purposes. 

Cache Creek and Clear Lake, Lake County. U. S. Army, Corps of Engineers. 
Dams on Kelsey Creek, Cache Creek, and North Fork Cache Creek for flood 
control and irrigation. Will affect creeks named and Clear Lake. 

Middle Fork Eel River, Mendocino County. G. L. Carrico. Hydroelectric and 
irrigation project involving large dams on the Middle Fork Eel River, a tribu- 
tary of the North Fork Eel River, and a tributary of the Middle Fork Eel 
River, with accompanying conduits. Would affect sections of the Middle Fork 
Eel River and tributaries of the Middle and North Forks. 

South Fork Eel River, Mendocino County. U. S. Army, Corps of Engineers. 
Flood control and summer flow maintenance dam. Would affect South Fork 
Eel River and Eel River. 

San Joaquin River, Fresno/Madera Counties. Southern California Edison Com- 
pany. Hydroelectric power project involving a large dam (No. 7) and reservoir 
above the mouth of W^illow Creek, with accompanying conduit and powerhouse 
(No. 4), which would affect 11 miles of the San Joaquin River. 

Big Dry Creek, Fresno County. U. S. Army, Corps of Engineers. The Big Dry 
Creek flood control project involves a dam, dikes and reservoir for which a 
permanent pool for warm-water fish was recommended. 

Mono Creek, Fresno County. Southern California Edison Company. Hydro- 
electric power project involving a large dam and reservoir at Vermilion Valley, 
which would affect most of the easily accessible section of Mono Creek. 

Kings River, Fresno County. U. S. Army, Corps of Engineers. The Pine Flat 
multiple purpose project, predominantly flood control, involves a large dam 
and reservoir at I'ine Flat which will affect directly the lower portion of the 
Kings River, but which through re-regulation of discharge permits hydro- 
electric development upstream and thus indirectly will affect the entire Kings 
River drainage. 



88 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

Kinys River, North Fork, Fresno County. Pacific Gas and Electric Company or 
Fresno Irrigation District or U. S. Bureau of Reclamation. Hydroelectric 
power projects involvinj,' large dams and reservoirs at Coolidge Meadow and 
Sand Meadows (Ilelm (Jreek), with accompanying conduits and powerhouses 
which would affect the entire North Fork Kings River and many of its tribu- 
taries. 

Kings River and Middle and South Forks. Fresno County. City of Los An- 
geles or U. S. Bureau of Reclamation or Francis X. Dlouhy. Hydroelectric 
power projects involving large dams and reservoirs at various sites including : 
Paradise Valley, Zumwalt Meadows (Sentinel site), and Cedar Grove on the 
South Fork ; Simpson Meadow and Tehipite Valley on the Middle Fork ; and 
at the junction of the Middle and South Forks. The dams and reservoirs, to- 
gether with accompanying conduits and reservoirs, would affect the major sec- 
tions of the Kings River and its Middle and South Forks. 

Kaiveah River, Tulare County. U. S. Army, Corps of Engineers. The Terminus 
flood control and irrigation benefit project, involving a large dam and reser- 
voir which would affect the lower section of the Kaweah River. 

Tule River, Tulare County. U. S. Army, Corps of Engineers. The Success 
flood control and irrigation benefit project, consisting of a large dam and 
reservoir which wovdd affect the lowermost section of the Tule River. 

Kern River, Kern County. U. S. Army, Corps of Engineers. The Isabella flood 
control and irrigation benefit project, involving a large dam and reservoir at 
Isabella which would affect sections of the Kern River. 

Oioens River, Inyo and Mono Counties. Hydroelectric power project in the 
Owens River Gorge affecting some five miles of river above Birchim Canyon. 

Colorado River, San Bernardino-Riverside Counties. U. S. Bureau of Reclama- 
tion. 

A. Upper section affecting Nevada, Arizona and California from Davis 
Dam, Arizona to Needles, California. Davis Dam, a hydroelectric booster 
plant for Hoover and Parker Dams power i)lants — created a 65-mile long 
fishing reservoir. Studies were ijrimarily on the effects of cold water releases 
to the river section below the dam. 

B. Upper section from Needles, California, to Topock, Arizona. River 
channelization over a 10-mile strip isolating and draining ox-bow lakes and 
sloughs with relative destruction to fish life present. 

C. Middle section from Taylor's Ferry to Palo Verde Lake in Cibola 
Valleys. Channelization to drain and reclass slough areas for agricultural uses 
and to drop elevations of outlets of waste irrigation drains with accompanying 
distress to fishes utilizing this habitat. 

Santa Ynez River, Santa Barhara County. Construction of Cachuma Dam by 
Bureau of Reclamation creates a l):irrier across the present steelhead stream 
in Southern California. The impoundment which provides domestic and irri- 
gation water for Santa Barbara and Central Coastal areas, may be utilized 
for public fishing. 

Santa Clara River Drainage. Flood control project. 

Santa Ana River Drainage. 

Of smaller individual proportions than the above major projects, 
but in the aggregate of considerable importance to fish life, are the 
numerous small diversions from our streams and rivers. All new applica- 
tions for permission to appropriate water are filed with the State Division 
of Water Resources and are reviewed by the Division of Fish and Game. 
In cases where there is definite threat of injury to fish, the Division of 
Fish and Game enters a protest, with a statement of the conditions under 
which the protest may be dismissed. In most instances these conditions 
consist of the release of a certain flow of water to the stream below the 
diversion for the preservation of fish life. The disposition of protests 
made by the Division of Fish and Game during tlie biennium and during 
the preceding biennium is shown in Table 8. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



89 



TABLE 8. DISPOSITION OF PROTESTS BY CALIFORNIA DIVISION OF FISH 

AND GAME AGAINST APPLICATIONS TO APPROPRIATE 

WATER IN 1946-48 AND 1948-50 



Total number of applications to appropriate water 

Number of applications protested by Division of Fish and Game 

Protest accepted 

Protest pending 

Applications cancelled 

Protest withdrawn after further investigation 

Informal hearing — settlement by agreement 

Informal hearing — action pending 

Formal hearing — compromised 



1948-50 


1946-48 


1,248 


1,126 


71 


49 


24 


19 


34 


20 


6 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 





2 


1 


1 


71 


49 



The importance of water in the economy of California is well appre- 
ciated by the Division of Fish and Game, and in the cases of all protests 
that we have entered we have carried out careful field investigations to 
avoid protests that cannot be justified. The wisdom of this policy is borne 
out by the fact that during- the period covered informal field hearings 
have been necessary in only three cases and only one formal hearing has 
been re(iuired. In the latter case there were a number of protestants other 
than the Division of Fish and Game. 



FISH DISEASE STUDIES 

During the biennium a trained parasitologist was added to the staff 
to cope wnth the many and often complex and puzzling problems created 
by fish diseases. 

AVork of the disease unit is divided into two parts : (1) the diagnosis 
and treatment of diseases of hatchery and wild fish, and (2) research 
concerned with diseases and nutrition of fish. 

The major portion of diagnosis and treatment has been done at the 
state fish hatcheries. Correct diagnosis has enabled the selection of 
proper treatments which when used promptly have prevented the occur- 
rence of heavy losses. In addition to hatchery disease problems, diseased 
fish submitted by fishermen and commercial trout farms were examined 
and diagnoses made. 

Research problems being carried on are the following : 

1. The study of Crypiohia sp., a blood inhabiting protozoan found in salmonid 
fish. This investigation is concerned with the distribution of the parasite and 
its possible role in the fluctuating runs of anadromous fishes. 

2. The study of a myxosporidian parasite has been carried on and work is con- 
tinuing on attempts to discover a resistant species of trout, with encouraging 
results to date. 

3. Various drugs and chemicals have been screened for possible use in the treat- 
ment of fish diseases. Among the more promising drugs are phenothiazine, 
sulfamerazine, and pyridylmercuric acetate. 



90 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

POLLUTION CONTROL 

Considerable progress in the abatement of pollution affecting fish 
and wildlife has been shown during the biennium. In 1948, critical condi- 
tions led to the apjiointment by the Division of Fish and Game of two 
sanitary engineers for surveys and to supply technical assistance in the 
prosecution of pollution cases. By this time in a number of places in the 
State, the w^artime and postwar expansion of population and industry 
had seriously overloaded the existing waste treatment facilities. At other 
locations disposal facilities had never been constructed and the resulting 
water pollution w^as more serious than even before, particularly in the 
Central Valley and San Francisco Bay areas. 

The primary pollution problems of interest to the Division of Fish 
and Game have occurred on the Central Valley salmon rivers, particu- 
larly the Tuolumne, San Joaquin, and Mokelumne. Following court 
action instituted by the Division of Fish and Game against the City of 
Modesto in 1947, sewage disposal facilities have been constructed, but a 
considerable organic load is still discharged to the river. In both 1948 and 
1949 water releases were required to get the salmon runs up the river. 
The salmon of the Tuolumne have not yet been completely protected from 
the dangers of pollution and a survey has recently been completed to 
evaluate tlie effects of the wastes now going into the river and those that 
are proposed for future discharge. Conditions for the salmon run in 1950 
are satisfactory because of the small tonnage of tomatoes processed this 
year. 

A great deal of improvement has been observed on the Mokekunne 
since 1948. All of the wineries in the vicinity of Lodi now have facilities 
for impounding their wastes and no fish mortality or severe oxygen 
depletion has been observed for the past two years. Severe pollution still 
exists at Stockton in the ship channel and in the San Joaquin Kiver, but 
conditions are not nearly as bad as before 1949. A court action similar 
to that taken against the City of Modesto was instituted against the City 
of Stockton in that year and stipulations were obtained whereby the city 
will construct a certain amount of additional treatment facilities each 
year until complete treatment is provided in 1954. The length of the San 
Joaquin River that is septic during the canning season has been reduced 
from about 10 to less than three miles as a result of the construction 
during the last two years. 

A study was made of the feasibility of using bottom organisms as 
indexes of jpoUution along the water front between Martinez and the 
Antioch Bridge. The rapid expansion of heavy industry in this area can 
be counted upon to present increasing pollution problems in the future 
as the load of industrial wastes builds up. Unfortunately so few macro- 
scopic bottom organisms were present in these waters that the above 
approach appears to hold little promise. This scarcity of bottom organ- 
isms has tentatively been attributed to the continual changes in salinity 
which characterize the area. 

In 1949 the Assembly Interim Committee on Water Pollution pro- 
posed a sweeping series of changes in the existing laws. The resulting 
legislation established a State Water Pollution Control Board and nine 
regional boards for the purpose of coordinating pollution control activi- 
ties and establishing pollution policies at the local level. The Division of 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 91 

Fish and Game was directly affected by the addition of Section 481.5 to 
the Fish and Game Code, which provides that all continuing and chronic 
cases of water pollution be turned over to tlie local boards for action. The 
1949 laws also provide that any persons desiring' to discharge sewage or 
industrial waste apply to the regional boards for requirements that will 
have to be maintained by the operator of the disposal system. The regional 
boards establish these requirements after consultation witli the state and 
local agencies interested in the problem. The Division of Fish and Game 
has the responsibility of furnishing any technical information or investi- 
gations on the fish and wildlife aspects of any case of pollution requested 
by the regional boards. The boards are now begiiniing to realize the im- 
portance of recreation, fish, and wildlife insofar as pollution and water 
use are concerned. The intention of the Legislature was for these boards 
to have small staffs and to utilize existing state departments and facilities. 
Until now the various boards have ju-ocessed only applications for new 
waste discharges and very little has been done with the chronic cases of 
stream pollution. Within a short time it is anticipated that the regional 
boards will be in a position to begin to abate some of the conditions which 
are the source of complaints at the present time. 

The number of requests for investigations and surveys that come in 
from both the regional boards and field personnel of the Division of Fish 
and Game far exceed the load that can be carried by the available person- 
nel. The State Water Pollution Control r>oard recognizes that the interest 
of the Department of Natural llesources in pollution control is as great 
as that of any other state agency, but this recognition is not widespread. 
The pollution control investigations carried on by the three state depart- 
ments interested in the problem have now been grouped and the entire 
pollution investigation program of the State is administered by a coordi- 
nating committee composed of three representatives, one each from the 
Department of Public Health, the Department of Public Works, and the 
Division of Fish and Game. 

In the past, agencies dealing with water use have not recognized the 
fish and game aspects or the magnitude of the industry they support, 
partly because of the limited program of the Division of Fish and Game 
as compared with those of the other state de|)artments. Tliis attitude is 
unfortunate, particularly insofar as pollution is concerned, because of 
the extreme interest of the sportsman in clean M^aters and the vital need 
of using all waters possible for recreation in our existing society. It is 
regrettable that any waters that could be used for fisli, wildlife, and 
recreation in this day of water shortages should be befouled by sewage 
beyond the point of any possible use. 

The years 1948-50 have seen a great deal of construction for domestic 
sewage treatment. The postwar building programs of cities have finally 
produced results and treatment plants are being completed and put into 
operation. A good example is the eastern side of San Francisco Bay. 
Plans were started before the war, the bond issue was passed in 1947, and 
construction will be completed in 1951. This will relieve the septic con- 
ditions along the bay and estuary and also the odors along the Eastshore 
Freeway. 

Much work needs to be done before the industrial waste problems in 
the State can be solved. The food processing industry has installed a 
number of screens and in cases where the city disposal plant accepts the 



92 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

waste a considerable amount of treatment is provided, for example at 
Stockton and Modesto. The San Jose-Santa Clara area has passed a bond 
issue for construction of treatment facilities, but the plant will not be 
completed for two or three years. It seems likely that we will soon see 
additional pulp mills in the State ; in fact, preliminary negotiations have 
begun with the builders of a proposed pulp mill on the McCloud River. 
A great deal of work remains to be done by the lumber industry all over 
the State. The cutting and hauling operations result in a large amount 
of debris being deposited in the streams, with resultant obstructions to 
migrating fish and pollution due to sawdust and bark. The problem of 
the effluent from millponds entering streams and killing fish is also 
serious and an educational campaign is being carried out in order that 
sawmill operators will drain ponds only during periods of high flow. 

One of the most common causes of complaint is the recurring prob- 
lem of oil spills, particularly from ships. The number of cases has de- 
creased considerably since the years before the war, probably due to the 
patrol activities of the Division of Fish and Oame. The prosecution of 
oil pollution cases may take place under either federal or state statutes, 
but in practice the majority of cases are handled in tlie local state courts 
by local patrol personnel. 

Probabh^ the most encouraging development during the last bien- 
nium has been the increased number of potential pollution cases that 
have been taken care of before j)ol]ution has occurred. This has been 
made possible by the increased public attention being given to water 
pollution and is the ' ' payoff ' ' of many years work by agencies and organi- 
zations, such as sportsmen's groups interested in water pollution control. 
With the establishment of the regional water pollution control boards, 
it is anticipated that no new sources of pollution will be allowed to dis- 
charge into state waters to the detriment of fish and aquatic life. Our 
experience has shown that the best time for pollution prevention is while 
plans are in the formative state, not after the treatment plant or the 
new industrial plant is completed. 

Two recent instances demonstrate this point. The Masonite Corpo- 
ration has recently completed a new plant at Ukiah. Originally it was 
proposed to use the Russian River for waste disposal and it was apparent 
that this would create intolerable conditions in the river. After nearly 
two years of negotiations the problem was solved by the installation of 
evaporators before the plant went into operation, thus creating a "tight" 
plant with no waste discharge. Another example of this predischarge 
control occurred at the City of Gridley. Without realizing the conse- 
quences the city proposed to put a series of sewer ponds immediately 
adjacent to the Gray Lodge Waterfowl Refuge. The hazard of botulism 
to waterfowl feeding in septic ponds is extremely serious, and any pro- 
posal to locate sewage disposal ponds in close proximity to any concen- 
tration of ducks must be treated with extreme caution. In this instance 
negotiations wdth the city and the consulting engineer resulted in the 
removal of the treatment plant site to the other side of town, near the 
Feather River, where gravel deposits are much more suited to pond 
construction because of the additional percolation. By this planning the 
hazard to waterfowl was eliminated and when final plans were completed 
the cost to the treatment plant had been reduced. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



93 



The state program for pollution abatement is based on preventing 
all new sources of pollution and then setting requirements to be met by 
the existing cases. The first portion of this program is well under way and 
the second phase is getting started. It is hoped that progress will continue 
until the present hazard to our fisheries resources is removed and the large 
areas of streams and bays now unsuitable for recreational use are restored 
to a useful condition. 

INTERSTATE WATERS 

In addition to the program on the Colorado River being conducted 
jointly with the State of Arizona, several conferences were held with 
personnel of the Nevada Fish and Game Commission, resulting in co- 
operative working plans for interstate waters which should assist both 
states in better management of these waters. 

WILDLIFE CONSERVATION BOARD PROJECTS 

At its 1947 Session the State Legislature adopted an act known as 
the AVildlife Conservation Act of 1947 and transferred $9,000,000 due 
the State from horse racing operations from the General Fund to the 
Wildlife Restoration Fund. This fund, to be used for capital expendi- 
tures, is administered by the Wildlife Conservation Board. The board 
receives proposals for projects from sportsmen's and other conservation 
groups, federal and state agencies, and individuals and passes on their 
worth. Approved projects are allocated funds, which are then transferred 
to the Fish and Game Commission, which carries out the actual construc- 
tion, operation, management, and maintenance of the projects. 




Figure 17. Right wing of flow maintenance dam at Stony Ridge Lake, El Dorado 
County. Note outlet box in left center of photograph, at end of dam, to regulate flow 

in stream below dam. 



94 FISH AND OAME COMMISSION 

It is obvious that such a comprehensive- program must draw heavily 
on the services of Division of Fish and Game personnel at all stages. 
As projects involving the inland sports fisheries, other than hatchery 
projects, have been submitted during the biennium the members of the 
biological staff have been called upon for field investigations, planning, 
and preparation of reports and recommendations. A summary of the 
status of Wildlife Conservation Board nonhatchery fish projects at the 
end of the biennium is presented hei-ewith : 

PROJECT 1. EL DORADO FLOW MAINTENANCE DAMS 

Board allocated $3-5,000 6/.3/40 and $65,000 8/2.3/49 ; Fish and Game Commis- 
sion approved 9/2.3/49. Barrier dam at Richardson Lake and flow maintenance dams 
at Stony Ridge and Crag Lakes completed in 1949. Active plans are under way for 
the construction of three flow maintenance dams in the Ruhicon River drainage, 
scheduled for compli>ti<>n this summer. District Fisheries Biologist J. C. Fraser is now 
working on contracts for pack stock. $2,000 was transferred from this project to the 
Division of Water Resources in .June to cover costs of survey investigations. 

PROJECT 2. DEEP CREEK STREAM IMPROVEMENT 
(HOLCOMB CREEK DAM) 

Board allocated $25,000 1/26/50 ; Fish and Game Commission approved 1/28/50. 
$1,500 has been transferred from 7XD.52 to Division of Water Resources for plans and 
sui'veys. Mr. Norris of the Division of Water Resources and District Fisheries 
Biologist W. A. Evans are scheduled to make a field inspection on or about July 14, 
1950, in order to reach a final decision regarding location of the dam site. 

PROJECT 4. PINE CREEK FLOW MAINTENANCE DAM 

Board allocated $43,.")00 6/3/49 ; Fish and Game Commission approved 9/23/49. 
A fish trap was constructed in 1950 for counts and studies of migrating fish. Studies 
are now being conducted by District Fisheries Biologist H. A. Hanson and project 
held in abeyance. 

PROJECT 12. MENDOCINO FOREST STREAM IMPROVEMENT 

Board allocated $5,000 5/18/.j0. A reconnaissance of stream improvement possi- 
bilities on Stony, Grindstone, and Thomes Creeks was made by District Fisheries 
Biologist G. I. Murphy and Dr. P. R. Needham of the University of California in 
June, 1950, and the results of their investigation are now being studied. 

PROJECT 16. EMIGRANT BASIN FLOW MAINTENANCE DAM 
AND STREAM IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM 

Board allocated $50,000 8/25/49 ; Fish and Game Commission approved 9/23/49. 
$2,000 was transferred from 7XD32.1 to the Divi.sion of Water Resources for plans 
and investigations in June, 1950. 

PROJECT 41. GRANITE CREEK FLOW MAINTENANCE 

Board allocated $30,000 8/25/49 ; Fish and Game Commission approved 9/23/49. 
A cooperative agreement is being drawn up by the U. S. Forest Service and should be 
transmitted shortly. The Forest Service is prepared to start construction at the close 
of engineering studies. 

PROJECT 42. MARSH LAKE LEVEL MAINTENANCE 
Board allocated $4,000 8/25/49 ; Fish and Game Commission approved 9/23/49. 
Final report and plans needed before any construction can be undertaken, but it is 
hoped to complete the work in 1950. 

PROJECT 43. BENNETT AND SMITH FISH LADDER 

Board allocated $6,000 8/25/49 ; Fish and Game Commission approved 9/23/49. 
Division of Architecture is working on plans and specifications, and permission was 
received on June 12th from the owner to go ahead with construction. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 95 

PROJECT 44-2. BURNT RANCH FALLS FISH LADDER 

Board allocated $8,000 8/25/49 ; Fish and Game Commission approved 9/23/49. 
Studies to date indicate that feasibility of this project is somewhat doubtful. Division 
i)f Architecture requested to make study and report. 

PROJECT 49. TAHOE FOREST FLOW MAINTENANCE 
AND IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM 

Board allocated $40,000 8/25/49 to initiate program and couii)lete essential work. 
Fish and Game Commission approved 9/23/49. Barrier dam at Miller Lake completed 
in 1949. $1,000 was transferred in June from 7XD35.2 to the Division of Water 
iiesources for plans and investigations. 

PROJECT 5 1. SEQUOIA NATIONAL FOREST FLOW 
MAINTENANCE PROGRAM 

Board allocated $50,000 8/25/49 ; Fish and Game Commission approved 9/23/49. 
Sample agreements for the construction of Millwood and Indian Basin Lakes w^ere 
received from tlu' V. S. Forest Service on June 2(;. The sample agreements were very 
satisfactory and the signed agreements are expected shortly for submission to the 
Department of Finance. 

PROJECT 5 7. SAK DIEGO RIVER FLOW MAINTENANCE 
AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM 

Board allocated $35,000 8/25/49 ; Fish and Game Commission approved 9/23/49. 
Progress in the investigation of this project has been delayed pending receipt of basic 
information from the County of San Diego. 

PROJECT 5 8. SAN DIEGO COUNTY FLOW MAINTENANCE PROGRAM 

I'.oanl a!h>cated $25,000 8/25/49 ; Fish and Game Commission approved 9/23/49. 
Project requires further detailed study. 

PROJECT 61. SHASTA RIVER FISH COUNTING DAM 

Board allocated $10,000 8/2.5/49 ; Fish and (Jann- Commission approved 9/23/49. 
A lease for site has not yet been approved in Sacramento. Project was turned over to 
the Division of Architecture and Public Works Board. Approval was asked on June 
22, 1950. 

PROJECT 62. CANYON CREEK FISH LADDER 

Board allocated $10,000 12/13/49 ; Fish and Game Commission approved 1/6/50. 
The Goldfield Consolidated Mining Corporation is giving up their lease on this prop- 
erty on June 30, 1950. During the month of June, District Fisheries Biologist J. H. 
Wales investigated this project with the general objective of removing the dam com- 
])l('tt'ly or building a smaller dam some distance upstream, since the estinuited cost 
of a tishway was excessive. Negotiations will be undertaken with the owner of the 
dam to achieve one of these objectives. 

PROJECT 63. SAWYER'S BAR AUXILIARY DAM 

Board allocated .$3. .500 (J/3/49 ; Fisii and (iame Commission ai)proved 9/23/49. 
Division of Architecture is drawing up plans and specifications, and permission for 
preliminai-y planning was received from the owner on June 20, 1950. 

PROJECT 67. SACRAMENTO RIVER WEIR (ROUGH 
FISH CONTROL BARRIER) 

Board allocated $18,000 3/19/49 ; Fish and Game Commission approved. Project 
being further studied. Construction ])eing defei-red. 

PROJECT 7 2. RAMER LAKE 
This project is completely authorized and Public Works Board approval was 
requested on June 5, 1950. An inspection by an engineer from the Division of Water 
Resources and District Fisheries Biologist W. A. Evans is pending. 

PROJECT 73. CRYSTAL LAKE LEVEL MAINTENANCE 

Board allocated $20,000 8/25/49 ; Fish and Game Conunissiou approved 9/23/49. 
Forest Service will make installation for the Division of Fish and Game during the 
summer of 1950 under an approved cooperative agreement. 



96 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

PROJECT 74. COACHELLA VALLEY PUBLIC FISHING AREAS 

Board allocated $32,500 1/26/50 ; Fish and Game Cominis.sion approved 1/28/50. 
No water supply commitment has been received as yet. Maintenance has been tenta- 
tively accepted by the Board of Supervisors of Riverside County. District Fisheries 
Biologist W. A. Evans is planning a meeting for field inspection. 

PROJECT 7 6. CLEAR LAKE REARING POND 
Project completed. 

PROJECT 77. LINDO LAKE PUBLIC FISHING AREA 

Board allocated $11,000 1/26/50; Fish and Game Commission approved 1/28/50. 
Agreement was received from the County of San Diego on .June 20tli and forwarded 
to Sacramento for approval. On June 29th the agreement was sent back not approved 
because the amount of money to be expended was apparently over the $10,000 limit 
on projects that may be performed with the services of the Division of Architecture. 
Attempts are being made to straighten out this difficulty. 

PROJECT 7 9. SULPHUR CREEK DAM 

The original cost estimate of $22,000 received from Division of Architecture was 
too high and it has been requested to resurvey the site at lower water flows. 

PROJECT 81. SAN BERNARDINO NATIONAL FOREST 
Board allocated $.35,000 1/26/50 ; Fish and Game Commission approved 1/28/50. 
Field investigations are under way. 

PROJECT 82. DRY LAKE LEVEL MAINTENANCE 

Board allocated $4,500 1/2G/50 ; Fish ami Game Commissiuu approved 1/28/50. 
Conferences with the U. S. Forest Service are planned. 

PROJECT 83. BIXBY SLOUGH PUBLIC FISHING AREA 

Board tentatively approved allocation of $100,000 at April, 1950, meeting, for 
a cooperative development of Bixby Slough. Necessary data and commitments from 
local interests being awaited. 

PROJECT 86. SAN ANTONIO CREEK PUBLIC FISHING AREA 

Board allocated $20,000 5/18/50 ; Fish and Game Commission approved 5/19/50. 
Field investigations being conducted. 

PROJECT 1010. DELTA FISH AND GAME OPERATIONS BASE 

Board allocated $27,000 5/18/50 ; Fish and Game Commission api)roved 5/19/50. 
Negotiations to secure site under way. 

CHILDREN'S FISHING WATERS 

Many municipalities were aided in establishing permanent fishing 
ponds for children. For example, the Los Angeles City Park and Rec- 
reation Department was assisted in establishing its successful fishing 
program in the city park lakes, and catch data were obtained. 

STEELHEAD AND SALMON 

The steelhead trout and salmon of California represent a tremen- 
dous resource. This resource, of the greatest importance in the economy 
of the State, is under constant threat from large-scale dam construction. 
One of the main goals of the Bureau of Fish Conservation, therefore, has 
been to acquire as rapidly as possible the essential facts necessary for 
the preservation and management of our steelhead and salmon fisheries 
in our expanding and changing economy. 

The present applied steelhead and salmon management program of 
the bureau includes rescue of fish from drying streams, removal of 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 97 

abandoned dams and other barriers, construction of fishways, and stock- 
ing with hatchery fish. The activities of the biological staff in connec- 
tion with these phases of the program are described elsewhere in the 
report. ►Some of the important special fact-finding investigations carried 
on during the biennium are summarized herewith. 

For some years the Bureau of Fish Conservation has carried out 
counts of spawning steelhead and salmon at various stations. Such counts 
provide a basis for legislative and management programs and for rec- 
ommendations in connection with proposed large dams. In 1950, all 
such work not already under the direction of the district biologists in 
the respective districts was placed under their supervision. Listed below 
are the counting stations operated by the Bureau of Fish Conservation : 
Station Name of stream County River system 

Klamathon Racks Klamath River Siskiyou Ivlamath River 

Shasta Racks Shasta River Siskiyou Klamath River 

Sweasy Dam Mad River Humboldt Mad River 

Benbow Dam Eel River, S. Fk Humboldt Eel River 

On November 1, 1948, a graduate college student working as a stu- 
dent biologist began a study of the efficiency of natural propagation of 
our steelhead and salmon and the factors affecting it. This study is being 
carried out in the Prairie Creek drainage, Humboldt County, and will 
include two -winter seasons of field work. The first of these seasons was 
that of 1948-49 and the second will be that of 1950-51. 

Another study which will in part complement the above was started 
at Fall Creek, Siskiyou County, in 1949. In this study different numbers 
of king salmon will be allowed to enter and spawn in Fall Creek each 
year. The resulting offspring will then be counted on their downstream 
migration to the Klamath River. From known numbers of parents and 
known numbers of offspring we hope to determine the most effective 
number of king salmon for a spawning tributary such as Fall Creek. 

The planting of steelhead in the Sacramento River from the federal 
hatchery at Coleman was supervised by the biologist in charge of Dis- 
trict 2. A number of these steelhead were tagged with celluloid disk 
tags in an attempt to determine the return to the angler before and 
after the fish had gone to sea. 

INLAND TROUT 

Although existing evidence indicates that the bulk of the trout 
caught by anglers in California as a whole result from natural propaga- 
tion, the hatcheries of the State play a very important role in supplying 
fish to a number of waters which otherwise would be incapable of pro- 
ducing satisfactory angling. 

In this program it is one of the principal functions of the biological 
staff to make the necessary initial surveys of waters and then to check 
them as necessary in order to keep stocking and general management 
policies in line with existing conditions. The records and policies for 
each managed water are kept current by means of a state-wide system 
of "hatchery management binders." These are permanent records in 
loose-leaf form, kept at each hatchery, with duplicate copies at the dis- 
trict office, which show the essential survey data for the managed water, 

4 — 49247 



98 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



a summary record of past stocking, and the basic stocking and general 
management policy as determined in conference between the biological 
and hatcherj^ staffs. 

Special investigations dealing with the inland trout fisheries car- 
ried on by the biological staff include studies of hatchery diets and fish 
diseases, test water programs, and studies of important individual bodies 
of water. These are described elsewhere in this report. 

In order to test the value of stocking interior-stock fall-spawning 
rainbows in steelhead and salmon waters, 50.000 advanced fingerlings 
were marked and planted in several streams along the Mendocino County 
coast. Less than 12 authenticated returns to the angler in the year after 
stocking indicate that such stocking in coastal streams is not justified. 




Figure 18. Marking rainbow trout at San Joaquin Experimental Hatchery, Fresno 
County. One of two fins is removed with clippers, so that after stocking the marked fish 
can be recognized as belonging to the particular group regarding which information is 

needed. Photoc/raph by Scott Soule. 



WARM-WATER FISHES 

The warm-water fisheries program of the Bureau of Fish Conserva- 
tion was greatly intensified and expanded near the beginning of the 
biennium. Two members of the biological staff were assigned to warm- 
water fisheries investigations on practically a full-time basis, and other 
members of the staff have devoted considerable time to the program. 

Following initial exploratory studies, several typical problem w^aters 
were selected for intensive study. These included Clear Lake in Lake 
County, Millerton Lake in Fresno and Madera Counties, and Don Pedro 
Reservoir in Tuolumne County. The intensive studies at these waters 
have been followed by widespread sampling of the populations of young 
fish in a large series of reservoirs throughout the State. Results gen- 
erally have indicated adequate largemouth black bass reproduction 
coupled with very inadequate forage for the bass of the year's hatch. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



99 



Steps to correct this situation by introducing golden shiners and other 
forage fishes were being taken at the end of the biennium. Other work 
in connection with the warm-water fisheries is described elsewhere in 
this report. 




Figure 19. Fish tagging at Millerton Lake, Fresno and Madera Counties. A num- 
bered metal strap tag is being attached to the upper jaw of a largemouth blaclt bass. 
Tags are used when information regarding individual flsh is needed. Photograph by 

C. K. Fisher. 



STRIPED BASS 

The catch record system for this important fishery was coordinated 
and placed on a firm foundation. A large volume of party boat records 
which had accumulated since 1938 was analyzed and interpreted. The 
handling of records of this type was put on a routine maintenance basis. 
Together with the statewide postal card estimates they now provide a 
continuous, up-to-date inventory of the fishery. 

A fairly ambitious tagging program aimed at evaluating the rate of 
harvesting by anglers was begun early in 1950. It was made possible by 
the acquisition of the 28-foot boat ''Striper." A total of 1,899 striped 
bass was tagged late in the biennium. Special studies were also made to 
test the resistance to corrosion of various metals used with disk tags. 
Such corrosion has proved to be a serious problem. 

Surveys of the abundance of fingerling striped bass on the nursery 
grounds in June and July revealed the presence of large numbers in 
1948, 1949, and 1950. There have not been enough of these surveys to 
establish a norm, but there is every indication that spawning and survival 



100 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

to the fingerling stage has been average or better in the three years 
mentioned. 

Liaison was maintained with the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation in 
connection with the Delta Mendota Diversion near Tracy. This diversion 
threatens to destroy significant numbers of striped bass. The Bureau of 
Reclamation has agreed to install complete fish screens at the initial 
temporary small-scale diversion and to carry on intensive studies of fish 
losses there. The Bureau will also investigate the practicability of the 
various remedial measures which have been suggested. 

FARM POND PROGRAM 

It is the policy of the Division of Fish and Game to supply an initial 
stock of warm-water fishes to private ponds too small to support public 
fishing and which meet certain other requirements. Trout for such ponds 
must be purchased from a Licensed Domestic Fish Breeder. 

The usual combination of largemouth black bass and bluegill sunfish 
has not worked out well in some ponds, and so we have initiated some 
experiments with other combinations in a few scattered ponds repre- 
sentative of the area in which they are located. 

In all, the biologists spend about 5 percent of their time on the farm 
pond program. They process applications for fish and inspect the pond 
if there is doubt as to its qualifications or there is possibility of escape 
of bass and sunfish into trout waters. 

In summary, during the biennium 467 applications for stocking of 
private ponds were processed, 222 ponds were visited, and 325 ponds 
were stocked with fish. 

LEGISLATION AND REGULATIONS 

Recommendations for changes in fishing laws and regulations, based 
on survey data on their general knowledge, have been submitted by 
members of the biological staff as required. 

PUBLIC INFORMATION 

Personnel of the biological staff devoted considerable time to appear- 
ances before sportsmen's clubs and other conservation groups and on 
radio and television programs, as well as to the preparation of printed 
information. About 280 talks were made at meetings throughout the 
State, plus 22 radio and 6 television appearances. In addition, conserva- 
tion motion pictures were shown many times. Numerous conferences in 
connection with fishery protection and development were attended and 
advice was rendered to sportsmen in connection with a number of club 
projects. 

The printed material consisted of published articles, which are 
listed in this report, and also of mimeographed information leaflets, 
pamphlets for school children prepared in cooperation with the State 
Department of Education, and fishing maps. The latter, issued as folders 
with the map on one side and informational material on the other, have 
proved very popular. The ' ' Striped Bass Fishing Map ' ' was published 
during the biennium and maps of the Colorado River area, the Marble 
Mountains Wilderness Area, and black bass fishing waters were prepared 
and will be issued shortly. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 101 

PUBLICATIONS BY STAFF MEMBERS OF THE BUREAU 

OF FISH CX)NSERVATlON 

Calhoun, A. J. 

1949. California striped bass catch records from the party boat fishery : 1938-1948. 
Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 35, no. 4, p. 211-253. 

Trout in San Francisco's backyard. West Coast Sportsman, vol. 6, no. 12, 
p. 40. 

1950. California's striped bass. Outdoor West Magazine, vol. 2, no. 3, p. 6-7, 28-29, 
May-June. 

Calhoun, A. J., and C. A. Woodhull 

1948. Progress report on studies of striped bass reproduction in relation to the 
Central Valley Project. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 34, no. 4, p. 171-187. 

Calhoun, A. J., C. A. Woodhull and Wm. C. Johnson 

1950. Striped bass reproduction in the Sacramento River system in 1948. Calif. 
Fish and Game, vol. 3G, no. 2, p. 135-145. 

Curtis, Brian 

1949. The warm-water game fishes of California. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 35, 
no. 4, p. 255-273. 

Curtis, Brian, and J. C. Fraser 

1948. Kokanee in California. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. .34, no. 3, p. 111-114. 

Evans, Willis A. 

1950. Aquatic weed control and fi.sh life. Report Second California Weed Con- 
ference, p. 85-87. 

Evans, W. A., and O. L. Wallis 

1949. Fishes of Yosemite National Park. Yosemite Nature Notes, vol. 23, no. 1, 
1944. 2d edition, revised 1949. 32 p. 

Murphy, Garth I. 

1948. A contribution to the life history of the Sacramento perch (Archoplites 
interruptus) in Clear Lake, Lake County, California. Calif. Fish and 
Game, vol. 34, no. 3, p. 93-100. 

Notes on the biology of the Sacramento hitch (Lavinia e. exilicauda) of 
Clear Lake, Lake County, California. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 34, no. 3, 
p. 101-110. 

1949. The food of young largemouth black bass (Micropterns salmoides) in Clear 
Lake, California. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 35, no. 3, p. 159-163. 

1950. The closed season in warm-water fish management. Trans. 15th North 
American Wildlife Conf., p. 235-251. 

The life history of the greaser blackfish {Orthodon microlepidotus) of Clear 
Lake, Lake County, California. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 36, no. 2, 
p. 119-133. 

Taft, Alan C, and Garth I. Murphy 

1950. The life history of the Sacramento squawfish {Ptychocheilus grandis) . 
Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 36, no. 2, p. 147-164. 

Soule, S. M. 

1950. Initial planting of golden trout in Hooper Creek drainage, Fresno County, 
California. Central California Sportsman, vol. 9, no. 7, p. 132-133, 136-137. 

Vestal, Elden H. 

1949. A Piute trout transplant. Central California Sportsman, vol. 8, no. 10, 
p. 164-166. 



102 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

TITLES AND ABSTRACTS OF ADMINISTRATIVE REPORTS 

SUBMITTED BY THE BIOLOGICAL STAFF 

July 1, 1948, to June 30, 1950 
Beck, Ralph V. 

Creel Returns From Crowley Lake, Mono County, California, Season of 1949. 
Submitted November 18, 1949. 10 pp., including 7 figures and 4 tables. 

Abstract : A creel count was made at Crowley Lake by members of the fish- 
eries staff during five four-day periods in the 92-day fishing season. During the 20 
days of census 3,930 anglers fished 21,313 hours and caught 2,925 fish, including 2,349 
rainbow (80.3 percent), 219 brown trout (7.5 percent), and 357 Tahoe cutthroat 
trout (12.2 percent). The average catch was 0.74 and the average catch per angler 
per hour was 0.14. In 1947 the average catch and average catch per angler per hour 
was 1.2 and 0.19 respectively, and in 1946 they were 2.0 and 0.33, indicating a 
gradual decline in the fishery. The percentage of brown trout and Tahoe cutthroat 
trout caught was greater in 1949 than in the two previous years. It is estimated that 
52,249 people fished Crowley Lake during the entire 92-day season and caught a 
total of 38,887 trout of all species. 

Calhoun, Alexander J. 

1946 Angling Catch Records. Submitted July 28, 1948. 80 pp., 26 tables, 10 
figures. 

Abstract : Angling catch questionnaires were .sent to a random sample of 
3.9 percent of the 766,75.3 licensed anglers in California in 1946. Total catch trends 
in recent years appear to have been relatively stable for trout, salmon and catfish. 
They appear to have decreased slightly for striped bass, and to have increased for 
black bass, sunfish and crappie. Numbers of anglers have increased sharply for all 
species, and there has been a corresponding decrease in the mean annual catch of 
all species, least extreme in the case of spiny rays. The validity of estimates derived 
from postal card survey, the county of residence distribution of licensed anglers, and 
migrations of trout and striped bass anglers from county of residence to county 
of catch are discussed in the report. 

Calhoun, Alexander J., and G. M. Christman 

Migration of California Trout Anglers in 1948. Submitted September, 1949. 
5 pp., 10 figures and 2 appendixes. 

Abstract : The 1948 migrations of licensed California trout anglers from six 
residence areas to eight trout fishing regions within the State are outlined in a series 
of tables and diagrams. Estimates of the numbers of trout caught by anglers making 
the various migrations are included. 

Calhoun, Alexander J., and Charles E. Warren 

The Effect of Increased Towing Speed Upon Tow-net Catches of Small Striped 
Bass. Submitted August 2, 1949. 8 pp. 

Abstract : The tow-net used in studies of striped bass fry is described. Results 
of a series of test toAvs at different speeds indicated decreasing efficiency of the net 
at speeds over 2.7 feet per second. No significant difference in length frequencies was 
apparent at the different speeds used, ranging from 2.7 to 6.6 feet per second. 

Coots, Millard 

Fish Rescue 1949. Stream Improvement Headquartei-s, Treka. Submitted 
April 3, 1950. 2 pp. including one table. 

Abstract : During the summer of 1949, 56,688 young salmonids, consisting of 
21,832 silver salmon and 34,856 steelhead, were rescued from drying streams and 
irrigation ditches tributary to the Scott and Klamath Rivers. This work was done 
by a biological aid with assistance from the Stream Improvement Headquarters staff. 

Creel Census — April 29, 1950. Klamath River, Siskiyou County. Submitted 
May 16, 1950. 3 pp. 

Abstract : Angling activity on the Klamath River was checked on this date. 
222 anglers were counted between Copco and the Scott River, a river distance 
of about 53 miles. 87 anglers were interviewed, including 42 who had completed 
their angling effort. The average fishing time was 3.5 hours, the average catch 9.4 
fish, catch per angler hour 2.7, estimated total catch 2,082. The catch consisted 
mostly of immature steelhead, plus a few spent adult steelhead, immature salmon, 
and yellow perch. 261 trout were measured, ranging from 4.0 inches to 13.9 inches 
(fork length). The mean length was 6.58 inches. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 103 

Curtis, Brian 

Report of the Activities of the Biological Staff of the Bureau of Fish Con- 
servation for the Fortieth Biennium, July 1, 1946, to June 30, 1948. 

Abstract : Describes the activities of the staff. Printed in large part in 
"Fortieth Biennial Report of the Division of Fish and Game" as part of the report 
of the Bureau of Fish Conservation. 

Douglas, Philip A. 

Rough Fish Control in Elizabeth Lake Canyon Drainage, Los Angeles County. 
Submitted December 28, 1949. 21 pp., including 13 figures, 6 tables, 1 graph, plus 
Appendix A and 2 sketch maps. 

Abstract : A decline in the fishing success for largemouth black bass, bluegill, 
erappie, catfish in the Elizabeth Lake Canyon drainage, Los Angeles County, 
necessitated a study of causative factors. 

A heavy population of greaser blackfish Ortliodon microlepidotus (Ayres) 
was found to be present in the four major bodies of water in the drainage, and 
stomach analyses indicated that they were of little forage value to the largemouth 
black bass in the area. 

Plans were laid for a 2-day treatment program distributing 1,600 pounds of 
cube root-33 percent rotenone, over 160 surface acres or 655 acre-feet of water, or a 
concentration of 0.90 p. p.m. of the chemical was used. (A high concentration of 
rotenone was used due to the alkaline waters involved.) The blackfish was found 
to be the most susceptible to the chemical, appearing in distress within thirty 
minutes following application of the rotenone. An estimated kill in waters treated 
was 605,601 rough fish (95 percent) and 26,017 game fish (5 percent). One lake 
had a natural kill October 12, 1949, and no new fish appeared following treatment. 

A restocking program for 1950 for the public lakes is based on a comparative 
basis of percentage compositions by species of the original stocking between 1938 
and 1945 of Lake Hughes, and the percentage composition of the same fish popu- 
lation estimated following the chemical treatment of November 26, 1949. 

From the above figures the following was noted : Largemouth black bass 
decreased slightly ; bluegill decreased considerably ; catfish increased moderately ; 
and black erappie increased considerably. 

A stocking program for the public waters has been proposed for 1950. 

p]vans, Willis A. 

A survey of the city park lakes of Los Angeles in relation to their proposed 
use for children's fishing recreation, Los Angeles County. Submitted March 20, 
1949. 22 pp., including eight figures and five maps. 

Abstract : A survey of the five Los Angeles City park lakes was made during 
January, 1949, to determine their adaptability to a children's fishing program. Thi*ee 
out of the five lakes are believed suitable for development and use within the year. 
The other two may be utilized as brood ponds to serve the other three. Fishing 
should be carried on under as natural conditions as possible. Physical and biological 
characteristics of the individual lakes are briefly discussed and recommendations 
for fish management in each presented. 

Fraser, J. C. 

Supplementary Report No. 1 on the Emigrant Basin Flow Maintenance Dam 
and Stream Improvement Program (Wildlife Conservation Board Project No. 16), 
Tuolumne County. Submitted January 6, 1950. 23 pp., including three tables, 1 
photograph. 

Abstract : Describes certain subprojects, including 4 new ones, and gives a 
revised status of subprojects in this program based on field sui'veys made in 1949. 

1949 Lake Tahoe Party Boat Catch Records, Placer/El Dorado Counties. 
Submitted January 9, 1950. 8 pp., 3 tables. 

Abstract : Seven guide fishermen operated from California ports in 1949, 
making 357 trips with a total of 587 anglers. Catch consisted of 1,009 mackinaw, 
6 rainbow trout, and 5 brown trout, total weight of all trout 3,433.5 pounds ; average 
weight of all trout 3.4 pounds ; average catch per angler 1.7 ; average catch per 
hour .37 ; average catch by weight per angler 5.8 pounds. 



104 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

The Frog Lake (Nevada County) Fishery in 1948. Submitted March 7, 1949. 
5 pp., 5 tables. 

Abstract : Discusses and summarizes the 1948 catch returns from this test 
lake. Catch records for 1938 through 1949 are tabulated. Practically negligible 
returns of a marked plant of 15,000 rainbow (2.5-13.0 per ounce) made in 1947 
is discussed. 

A Report on the Emigrant Basin Flow Maintenance and Stream Improvement 
Program (Wildlife Conservation Board Project No. 16). Submitted March 18, 1949. 
74 pp., 16 sketch maps. 

Abstract: Describes, discusses and evaluates the nineteen individual retain- 
ing and check dam projects within the program. Lists additional information needed 
for some of the projects. Sketch maps of the project area are given for 16 of the 
projects. No cost estimates are given. 

Report on Proposed Power Projects, Middle Fork Stanislaus River, Tuolumne 
County. Submitted September 28, 1949. 15 pp., 7 figures, 4 tables. 

Abstract : Gives description, present status, or probable effects on the fish- 
eries of the proposed Beardsley and Donnells Dam projects on the Middle Fork 
Stanislaus River, Tuolumne County, applied for under Federal Power Commission 
Project Nos. 2005 and 2018 by the Oakdale and South San Joaquin Irrigation 
Districts. Recommendations for protection of the fisheries to be afEected are given. 

German, Eugene R. 

Creel Census at McCloud River Mouth, Shasta County, May 1, 1949. Sub- 
mitted May 15, 1949. 6 pp., including 3 tables. 

Abstract : The fifth annual creel census at the mouth of the McCloud River 
was conducted on May 1, 1949. Of 61 anglers, 11 fished the river and took 36 trout 
(mostly small rainbow), while 50 fished Shasta Lake and took 58 trout (lai-ger 
rainbow, brown and Dolly Varden). There were more dollies than in other years. 
Angling was better than in 1948. 

Aerial Fish Planting in District No. 1. Submitted October 31, 1949. 12 pp., 
including 2 tables. 

Abstract : Describes first full scale aerial fish plants and problems involved. 
Rough figures show planting costs per fingerling to be $0,004 by air and $0.02 by 
pack stock. 

Creel Census at McCloud River Mouth, Shasta County, April 29, 1950. Sub- 
mitted June 15, 1950. 3 pp., including 1 table. 

Abstract : The sixth annual creel census at the mouth of the McCloud River, 
on Shasta Lake, was made on April 29, 1950. 35 of 41 anglers fished the lake itself. 
Catch per hour from shore was .41 and by boat was .14. No fish over 14 inches were 
taken, but fish were in excellent condition. The catch consisted mainly of rainbow, 
only 2 Dolly Varden being taken. 

Handley, John G. 

Progress Report on a New Type of Fish Screen Tested in Trinity County. 
Submitted November 14, 1949. 9 pp., including 6 figures. 

Abstract : The history of the bar and rotary type fish screens is told briefly. 
The new perforated plate fish screen is described and its advantages given. Note is 
made of the importance of the by-pass flow. The tests made by Handley and Coots 
on the perforated plate screen on the Jim Lee Ditch, Trinity County, are described. 
These tests showed that during the 1949 irrigation season approximately 8,280 
steelhead and salmon fingerlings were stopped by the screen, diverted through the 
by-pass opening, and carried back to the river. 

Hanson, Harry A., and H. P. Chandler 

Dispersing Rotenone at Morris Lake, Plumas County, California. Submitted 
February 10, 1949. 5 pp., including 1 map, 1 sketch of equipment and 1 photo of 
operation. 

Abstract : Report of method used to disperse 1,000 pounds cube root powder 
(4.9 percent rotenone content) in a forty-acre lake having a volume of approxi- 
mately 750 acre-feet. Apparatus used : Two 10-foot light metal row boats, one used 
as a towboat and the other as a barge. Mixing was done in a 60-gallon oak barrel by 
means of a 2J h.p. Lausen air-cooled outboard motor. Dispersion was by gravity 
through two one-inch garden hoses of 8- and 20-foot lengths. Rate of dispersion was 
about 200 pounds of powder per hour by two men. Suggested improvements in the 
method included by the authors. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 105 

Johnson, William C. 

A Bottom Dredge for the Striped Bass Investigation. Submitted September 
16, 1949. 7 pp., including 5 figures. 

Abstract : A bottom dredge was designed to survey shallow water areas where 
the standard tow net could not be used for the striped bass investigation. A descrip- 
tion of the net and its construction is given in detail ; dimensional drawings and 
photographs are also included. 

Analysis of 1949 Striped Bass Party Boat Fishing Effort. Submitted June 
14, 1950. 7 pp., including 1 table, 1 exhibit. 

Abstract : This is a routine report analyzing the fishing effort of the striped 
bass party boat operators during 1949. The analysis is made up from the daily logs 
the operators have submitted and other methods of contacting them for reports. 

Kersnar, Frank J. 

Chlorination of Crystal Lake. Submitted September 15, 1949. 21 pp., includ- 
ing 8 figures. 

Abstract: Crystal Lake was chlorinated in an effort to eradicate all aquatic 
life. Plan was to chlorinate so that residuals of 10 p. p.m. were obtained, but 
mechanical difficulties encountered prevented reaching this standard. Residuals 
slightly greater than 2.5 p. p.m. were obtained throughout the lake. Results achieved 
were good, although higher residuals would have given better results. Description 
given of apparatus and method used. 

Kimsey, J. B. 

Wildlife Conservation Board Project No. 49 FT(0), Tahoe National Forest 
Flow Maintenance and Improvement Program. Report of Surveys in 1949. Sub- 
mitted March 20, 1950. 46 pp., including 4 maps, 8 photos, 2 tables, and appendix. 

Abstract : Report of surveys made in 1949. Five units listed, two unsatis- 
factory. Unit 1. Two check dams proposed. Dams on three other lakes tentatively 
recommended pending work in 1950. Unit 2. Chemical treatment of lakes — not rec- 
ommended. Unit 3. Barrier removal on south fork Yuba River, Nevada County. 
Recommended removal three impassable falls in first two miles of stream. Unit 4. 
Chemical treatment of lakes — not recommended. Unit 6. Retained dams recom- 
mended on Lower and Middle Loch Leven Lakes. 

Chemical Treatment of Miller Lake, Placer County, August 21, 1949. Sub- 
mitted March 27, 1950. 4 pp. plus map, 2 photos, blueprint. 

Abstract : A description of the lake, its fishery and past stocking is given. 
The survey and subsequent chemical treatment is described. The treatment appears 
to have been successful and thousands of suckers and only one large brown trout 
were removed. A barrier dam was designed and constructed to prevent entry of 
rough fish from outlet waters. The lake will be restocked in 1950 with 15,000 rain- 
bow trout. 

Chemical Treatment of Richardson Lake, El Dorado County, August 20, 1949. 
Submitted March 27, 1950. 4 pp. plus map, 2 photos, blueprint. 

Abstract : A description of the lake, its past stocking and fishery is given. 
The chemical treatment was successful with thousands of introduced minnows and 
suckers being killed and only one eastern brook and one rainbow trout killed. A bar- 
rier dam to prevent rough fish migrations into the lake was designed and constructed. 
The lake will be restocked in 1950 with 8,000 eastern brook trout. 

Notes on Kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) spawning in Donner 
Lake, Nevada County, 1949. Submitted June 30, 1950. 18 pp., including 6 figures. 

Abstract : Spawning Kokanee and their nests were observed periodically 
from November, 1949, to February, 1950. Drawdown of lake by power and irriga- 
tion companies exposed nests. Most of eggs were killed by prolonged freezing. Some 
eggs which were frozen for only short periods continued development as did eggs in 
seepage areas. It appears successful natural reproduction of Kokanee in Donner 
Lake is possible, providing water levels can be manipulated reasonably. Discussion 
of possible remedies, including moving gravels into deeper water. 

Miller, Richard G. 

A Study of the Food of Lake Tahoe Fishes. Progress Report: 1948. Sub- 
mitted April 29, 1949. 27 pp., including 11 tables and 2 figures. 

Abstract: Summarizes findings of first half of proposed two-year program 
investigating ecology of Lake Tahoe fishes. Lists 10 species present, with lake chub 
and sculpin as principally utilized forage fishes, whitefish and sucker as incidental 



106 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

forage, and red-sided shiner and speckled dace as unutilized. Tables of stomach 
sample analyses given for 8 species, including mackinaw trout, the principal preda- 
ceous fish. Interrelationships noted include : rainbow-mackinaw, cutthroat- 
mackinaw, brown trout-forage species. Historical account of fishery summarizes pos- 
sible causes for disappearance of Lake Tahoe cutthroat. Natural reproduction ap- 
pears to be perpetuating mackinaw and brown trout in the lake. Appendix (pp. 2'A- 
27) partially discusses effects of season, wind, and temperature, with thermoclines 
of two stations graphed. Table A (p. 25) breaks down the total sport catch logged 
at one station (2,947 pounds for 131 days) into monthly data for mackinaw, rain- 
bow% and brown trout, including: average weight per fish (4.25 pou;ids), average 
number catches per day, and average number fish caught per day (5.4). Conclu- 
sions expressed are tentative, pending final report. Bibliography of 9 titles. 

Outline of Work to Be Done on the Food Habits of the Forage Fishes of Lake 
Tahoe in 1949. Submitted April 29, 1949. 8 pp. 

Abstract : Proposed study of Lake Tahoe ecology, with special emphasis on 
food relationships of 5 species of forage fishes, is intended to reveal the kinds of 
organisms utilized and their volumes. Seven sections outline the methods and pro- 
cedures for sampling, size of samples, location of sample stations, and supplemental 
observations proposed for determining : (1) food habits of 5 species of fish at 3 sta- 
tions (by statistical analyses of stomachs), (2) seasonal dietary change, (3) food 
habits of various sizes of a species, (4) diurnal variation in feeding and (5) inter- 
relationships. Appendix lists equipment needed, its source, and estimated cost. 

Murphy, Garth I. 

Experiments on the Tolerance of Sacramento Perch to Copper Sulphate. 
Submitted November 29, 1948. 3 pp. 

Abstract : A series of aquarium experiments indicate that Sacramento Perch 
{Archoplites interrupt us) can stand copper sulphate in quantities up to 0.5 p. p.m. in 
Clear Lake, Lake County, water (pH 7.8-8.1, total alkalinity 16 p. p.m.). 

The 1947 and 1948 Fishery of Conn Valley Reservoir, Napa County. Sub- 
mitted January 11, 1949. 23 pp. 

Abstract : Conn Valley Reservoir, constructed in 1945, has a depth of 110 
feet and a surface area of 950 acres when full. Ecological conditions in the lake are 
bordei'line for rainbow trout. Rainbow trout and green sunfish are the principal con- 
stituents of the lake population. In 1947, the catch consisted of 30 percent hatchery 
trout planted at 25 to the ounce in April, 1945, and 70 percent wild trout. In 1948, 
the catch was 96 percent catchable trout planted in March, 1948, and 4 percent wild 
trout. Factors responsible for the lack of wild trout in the 1948 catch, and recom- 
mendations for future management and research, are discussed. 

The 1948 Fishery of Clear Lake, Lake County. Submitted February 17, 
1949. 13 pp., Appendix A, 2 figures. 

Abstract: In 1948, the catfishery was about one-third better than in 1947 
in terms of catch per angler by number, apparently through the appearance of a 
stronger year class (1947) in the fishery. A good forage fish crop was produced in 
1948 and probably because of this survival of young bass, Sacramento perch, and 
catfish to the early fall was exceptionally good. The outlook for an improving fishery 
at Clear Lake is good. 

Fish tagging. Submitted March 16, 1950. 26 p. 

Abstract: This report is an annotated partial survey of the literature on fish 
tagging. 110 papers are cited. 

Fish rescue and stream improvement work in the North Coast Area in 1949. 
Submitted April 15, 1950. pp. 1-2, 7 tables. 

Abstract : In 1949 4 fish rescue crews were in operation. One was stationed 
at Prairie Creek Hatchery, one in Humboldt County, and two in Mendocino County. 
One of the Mendocino County crews was financed by Mendocino County. The four 
crews combined rescued 783,313 trout and salmon. 

Returns from marked fall spawning rainbow trout planted in several Mendo- 
cino County coastal streams in 1948. Submitted May 12, 1950. pp. 1-6, 4 tables. 

Abstract : 50,000 rainbow trout were planted in 9 streams, at approximately 
6,000 to a stream. Plants were made in September and October. No serious effort was 
made to obtain returns. Spot checks and reports from w'ardens and sportsmen re- 
corded 8 of the marked fish in angler's catches in 1949. Reasons for the poor returns 
are discussed. 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 107 

Shapovalov, Leo 

Fish rescue and stream improvement work in the North Coast Area in 1045. 
Submitted June 7, 1949. 11 pp., including 6 tables. 

Abstract : In 1945. 2 State fish rescue crews operated 173 man-days from 
May 8 through October 26 and rescued 842,200 trout and salmon in Del Norte, 
Mendocino, and Lake Counties. These fish weighed 34,872 ounces and averaged 24.2 
fish per ounce. They were planted in streams and lakes in Del Norte, Mendocino, 
Lake, Napa, and Sonoma Counties. On the basis of 1945 Prairie Creek Hatchery 
costs, the total cost of producing and planting the rescued fish at a hatchery would 
have been $4,588.74. 

Fish rescue and stream improvement work in the North Coast Area in 1940. 
Submitted June 10, 1949. 12 pp., including 6 tables. 

Abstract : In 1940, State fish rescue crews operated 206 man-days from May 
2 through October 3 and rescued 981,544 trout and salmon in Del Norte, Mendocino, 
and Lake Counties. This is the largest number taken in any season in this area. 
These fish weighed 38,719 ounces and averaged 24.4 fish per ounce. They were planted 
in sti-eanis and lakes in Del Norte, Mendocino, Lake, and Sonoma Counties. On the 
basis of 1946 Prairie Creek Hatchery costs, the total cost of producing and planting 
the rescued fish at a hatchery would have been $7,326.75. 

Fish rescue and stream improvement work in the North Coast Area in 1948. 
Submitted April 7, 1950. 14 pp., including 9 tables and appendices. 

Abstract : In 1948, State crews rescued 326,626 trout and salmon and the 
jNIendocino County crew 108,750, a total of 435,376, in Del Norte, Humboldt, Men- 
docino, and Lake Counties. The fish were planted in various streams and lakes in 
these counties. The State crews operated a total of 132 man-days, from May 17 
through September 29. The combined fish rescues weighed 35,309 ounces and averaged 
12.3 fish per ounce. On the basis of 1948 Prairie Creek Hatchery costs, the total cost 
of producing and planting the rescued fish at a hatchery would have been $12,578.70. 
A limited amount of stream improvement work, mostly of an annual nature, was 
also done by the Upper Eel River crew. 

Fish rescue and stream improvement work in the North Coast Area in 1947. 
Submitted April 3, 1950. 15 pp., including 10 tables and appendices. 

Abstract : In 1947, State fish rescue crews operated 206 man-days from May 
16 through August 2 and rescued 381,700 trout and salmon in Del Norte, Mendocino, 
and Lake Counties. These fish weighed 12,270 ounces and averaged 31.1 fish per 
ounce. They were planted in streams and lakes in Del Norte, Mendocino, Lake, and 
Sonoma Counties. On the basis of 1947 Prairie Creek Hatchery costs, the total cost 
of producing and planting the rescued fish at a hatchery would have been $2,345.80, 
A considerable amount of stream improvement work, mostly of an annual nature, 
was also done by two of the crews. Trout and salmon rescue operations in Napa, 
Santa Clara, and Santa Cruz Counties are included in the appendices. 

Soule, Scott M. 

Power development in Kings River drainage, Fresno County, California. 
Report Number 1 : General description. Submitted May 27, 1949. 1 plus 21 pp., 
including 1 figure. 

Abstract : Describes Kings River drainage, water supply, existing irrigation 
and power developments, access roads and trails, and recreational development and 
potentialities. Upstream power development — long delayed because of interference 
with downstream irrigation rights — is now possible through reregulation of river 
flow by new Pine Flat Reservoir. Gives a brief account of present development plans 
proposed by Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Fresno Irrigation District, Francis 
N. Dlouhy, City of Los Angeles, and U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, and describes 
the fishery threatened thereby. A summary of pertinent correspondence and reference 
literature together with a table showing partial recreational use is appended. 

Creel census at Hume Lake, Fresno County, May 1, 1949. Submitted May 27, 
1949. 11 plus 22 pp., including 5 figures and 6 tables. 

Abstract: Gives a brief description of Hume Lake (surface area, 94 acres) 
and its past fishery, including 1940 and 1947 poisonings and summary of stocking 
since 1940. Out of 914 anglers checked out between 7 a.m. and 8 p.m. on only road 
leaving lake, completed records were obtained for 886, who caught 4,939 trout, 4,931 
rainbow and 8 brown, for an average of 5.46 trout per fisherman-day or an average 
of 0.75 trout per fisherman-hour. The rainbow trout averaged Si inches fork length. 
10.7 percent of all anglers made limit catches (15 trout) ; 17.4 percent made licro 



108 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

catches. About 60 percent of total anglers fished from shore and accounted for 49 
percent of total catch, as against 40 percent who fished from boats and made 51 
percent of total catch. Estimated total number of anglers was 1,044 and total catch 
was 5,683 trout. Recommends further creel studies at Hume Lake and a comparative 
study of Hume and Sequoia Lakes, stocked with spring and fall spawn stock rain- 
bow respectively. 

Power development of Kings River drainage, Fresno County. California. Re- 
port Number 2 : North Fork of Kings River. Submitted October 21, 1949, viii plus 
56 pp., including 19 figures and 3 tables. 

Abstract : Describes the North Fork Kings River, its present trout fishery 
and power development. Lists the proposed power developments as planned by Pacific 
Gas and Electric Company, Fresno Irrigation District, and the U. S. Bureau of 
Reclamation. Discusses the probable effect of these developments on the fishery. Con- 
cludes that the fishery can be partially saved by water releases of between 3 and 4 
percent of the mean annual flow of the river, or that it could be replaced in kind by 
improving or creating other fishing waters at the expense of the agency developing 
the power resources and that the fishery should be saved by one of these two means. 
Recommends that the Division of Fish and Game notify all interested agencies of 
the threatened loss of fisheries value and negotiate to save the fishery by obtaining 
water releases or by a replacement of the fisheries value to be lost by having agency 
developing power improve other waters. 

Occasional creel censuses at Hume Lake, Fresno County, during 1949. Sub- 
mitted April 7, 1950. 1 plus 31 pp., including 14 tables. 

Abstract : Describes Hume Lake (94 acres) briefly ; gives summary of stock- 
ing since 1947 (i.e. after last poisoning) . Results of 8 creel checks show fishing good 
early May but poor late May through mid-September, then picked up to fair by 
season's close (October 31). The estimated total season's catch was 17,000 rainbow 
trout, by an estimated 7,000 angler-days of fishing (estimated average catch/day 
of 2.4 and estimated average catch/hour of 0.51). Season's pressure estimated at 74 
anglers/acre ; season's catch estimated at 180 rainbow trout/acre. Angling pressure, 
catch and stocking data are compared with same for Castle, Crystal, and June Lakes. 
Concludes that nearly all of the 1949 catch was of planted rainbow trout and 
discusses their age, growth and condition. Estimated about 75 percent of basic 
annual plant (30,000 spring-spawn rainbow trout at 4i inches in September) was 
harvested in 1949, and on basis of estimated $35/M planting cost, each creeled 
rainbow trout cost slightly over 6 cents. Recommend continuation of present basic 
stocking policy and trial planting of 10,000 catchable rainbow trout spaced during 
summer. Concludes that unless trial planting of catchable rainbow trout succeeds, 
there is little hope of raising the quality of angling during mid-season months when 
the lake temperature attains or exceeds 70 degrees F. Recommends further O2 and 
temperature studies and investigation of success of spawning in tributary streams. 

Soule, Scott M. and William A. Dill 

Pine Flat Reservoir, Fresno County. Submitted July 12, 1949. 15 pp. plus 
1 table and 1 plate. 

Abstract : Chronological summary of all developments re permits and protests 
on Corps of Engineer's Flood Control Project on Kings River near Piedra. Describes : 
river and fishery in project area ; projected dam, reservoir and its operation ; effect 
on fishery. Dam will store 1 million acre-feet with surface area of 5,900 acres. 
Fluctuation may be 393 feet annually, and no provision is made for dead storage. 
Report gives recommendations for minimum pools, impoundments outside reservoir 
area if minimum pools are not provided, construction of borrow pits to provide fishing 
ponds, screens, minimum flows below dam. Suggests these recommendations be put 
into form of a resolution by California Fish and Game Commission. 

Vestal, Elden H. 

The creel census at Rush Creek Test Stream, Mono County, California, season 
of 1948. Submitted November 30, 1948. 15 pp., 5 tables, 2 figui-es, 1 photo. 

Abstract : Tlie creel project at Rush Creek was operated for a total of 169 
fishing days. All plantings were doubled over 1947 and a 3-day post-planting closure 
following each catchable plant was tried. From April 28 to August 11, 1948, 19,945 
rainbow trout averaging 7 inches long (marked right ventral) were planted. (5 
spaced plants each of about 4,000 rainbows were made). On October 13, 1948, the 
second winter carryover plant of 8,000 rainbows (average 4 J inches) was made; as 
in 1947 these plants were made in two groups of 4,000 each : fall-spawned from 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 109 

1947 eggs (marked dorsal and adipose) and spring-spawned from 1948 eggs (marked 
adipose) . In addition, two 1948 summer plants of fingerling brown trout (4,000) and 
rainbow trout (4,000) were made for an additional carryover test. During the 1948 
season, 8,384 anglers fished 31,962 hours for a total of 20,379 wild and planted fish. 
Marked hatchery fish contributed 93.6 percent of total catch. Out of the 19,945 
catchable rainbow trout planted, 18,362 (92.1 percent) were caught. Only 72 (3.8 
percent) of the fall-spawned 1947 carryover plant and 175 (8.8 percent) of the 
spring-spawned 1947 carryover plant showed in 1948 creels. No 1947 carryover fish 
were taken after August 14. Wild fish contributed 6.4 percent of total 1948 catch : 
1,131 (87.6 percent) were brown trout, 140 (10.8 percent) were rainbow trout, and 
21 (1.6 percent) were eastern brook. Average angler catch per hour for the season 
was 0.63. Sixty percent of the right ventral fish were taken in only 20 fishing days 
(4-day samplings following the post-planting closures). 

Additional treatment of aquatic plant beds at Twin Lakes, Mammoth, Mono 
County, California. Submitted December 28, 1948. 6 pp., 1 figure. 

Abstract : An area of 2.8 acres between center and lower Twin Lakes, in the 
Mammoth Lake Recreation Area, choked by dense growths of chiefly Anacharis, was 
treated with 885 pounds of sodium arsenite powder (75 percent arsenious oxide) 
giving an initial concentration of 21.2 p. p.m. arsenious oxide ; partial collapse and 
a "burn" of plant growth down to a depth of 6 inches was observed a week later. 
The high concentration used forms a test of sodium arsenite in a disturbed water 
situation where wave action, stream flow, and ground seepages might easily nullify 
caustic action of the poison at lower concentration. Control of plants in the interlake 
area will restore the area to angling, interlake boat travel, and to recreational use 
of hundreds of vacationers using the Twin Lakes camp grounds. 

Creel inventory at Rush Creek Test Stream, Mono County, California, 1949. 
Submitted December 19, 1949. 13 pp., 2 figures, 4 tables. 

Abstract : The creel inventory was conducted for 179 fishing days. From April 
29 to August 29, 19,975 rainbow trout averaging 7^ inches long (marked VV) were 
planted at six intervals. Two special summer plants of fingerling browns (3,003) 
and rainbow (3,000) were made for a further carryover test. During the 1949 season, 
10,004 anglers fished 36,417 hours for a total of 18,020 wild and planted fish. Marked 
hatchery fish contributed 90.8 percent of the total. Out of 19,975 catchable rainbow 
(marked VV) planted, 15,995 (80.0 percent) were taken. Only 54 of the fall-spawned 

1948 cari-yover plant and 114 of the spring-spawned 1948 carryover plant (2.2 
percent combined) were taken in 1949 creels. Wild fish contributed 9.2 percent of the 

1949 total catch ; 1,373 (83.0 pereeent) were brown, 279 (16.7 percent) were rainbow 
and 5 (0.3 percent) were eastern brook. Average catch per angler hour for the 
season was 0.49 with the catch per angler day at 1.8. 

Chemical treatment of Upper Twin Lake, Robinson Creek, Mono County, Cali- 
fornia. Submitted April 15, 1950. 41 pp., including 14 figures, 9 photos, 3 maps, 
6 tables, 2 graphs. 

Abstract : Upper Twin Lake, Robinson Creek, Mono County, 14 miles south- 
west of Bridgeport, was treated September 8, 1949, with 16,835 pounds of cube, 
rotenone averaging about 5 percent, to remove a large population of chubs, sandbar 
suckers, shiners, and sculpins. The lake at spill has 265 surface acres with a maxi- 
mum depth of 112 feet ; maximum temperature is 65° F., and there is unusually high 
oxygen deep into the hypolimnion. Plan of the project is described and embodied in 
Figure 5, p. 8A. Only 194 trout were reported from the lake, while over 100,000 
rough fish were killed. End concentration of cube used was approximately 0.68 
p. p.m. ; 15,200 pounds of cube was used in lake treatment and 1,635 pounds in treat- 
ment of about 4 miles of tributaries. Spill from the lake was nontoxic to trout and 
whitefish 75 days after treatment. Restocking and proposed management program 
is discussed and recommendations presented. 

Chemical treatment of Tamarack Lake, Mono County, California, 1949. Sub- 
mitted January 26, 1950. 8 pp., 2 figures. 

Abstract : Tamarack Lake, 12.7 acres at an elevation of 9,700 feet near 
Bridgeport, Mono County, California, was infested with sand-bar suckers (Catosto- 
mus arenarius ) , introduced about 1879 by pioneers of the Bridgeport Valley as for- 
age for trout in the lake. Elimination of the sucker population was accomplished 
September 21-23, 1949, with 535 pounds of cube (rotenone 3.9 percent) as a necessary 
step in preparation for the proposed chemical treatment of Lower Twin Lake as 
well as for restoration of Tamarack Lake as a trout water. 



110 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

Vestal, Elden H. and Ralph Y. Beck 

Preliminary report on the proposed chemical reclamation of Bridgeport Reser- 
voir, Mono County, California. Submitted August 23, 19-48. 14 pp., 1 figure. 

Abstract : The Bridgeport Reservoir, of the Walker River Irrigation District, 
is located near Bridgeport. Mono County. It has a capacity at spill of 42,460 acre- 
feet with a surface area of 3,070 acres and maximum depth of about 49 feet. The 
reservoir at one time produced reasonably good trout fishing, but since about 1934 
has become overrun with carp. Exceptionally dry seasons of 1947-48 have created 
the first opportunity for carp removal from the reservoir and tributaries in 15 years ; 
and feasibility for the project is expected by late September or eai-ly October this 
year. The method of continuous distribution of rotenone at 1 p. p.m. in the tributaries 
with backpump treatment of nonflowing "pockets" is outlined. Treatment of the 
reservoir will follow methods used at Gull Lake, with a concentration of rotenone 
of 1 p. p.m. Fish rescue is not considered practical and it is desired that dead fish 
be left to refertilize the reservoir. It is recommended that 200,000 brown trout finger- 
lings be used to restore the sport fishery. 

Report on the stream-use census at Rock Creek, luyo and ]\Iono Counties, 
California, 1948. Submitted December 17, 1948. 22 pp., 1 figure, 4 tables, 1 graph. 

Abstract : A stream-use census was conducted over chiefly 6.3 miles of Rock 
Creek during the entire 1948 angling season of 184 days. The project was in support 
of a protest by the Division of Fish and Game against application of the City of Los 
Angeles to divert 50 c.f.s. and 40,000 acre-feet from a point 0.9 miles above Tom's 
Place, Mono County. Special car samples totaling 120 in June, July, and August 
showed an average of 2.86 persons per car, of which 73.2 percent were anglers. Some 
14,114 cars were recorded in the project area in 1948 ; the total number of recrea- 
tional days was estimated at 40,366. indicating an estimated 29,548 angler days in 
the 6.3 miles during the season. Average daily use per mile per day was about 25.4 
anglers. Angler use was greatest in July with 9,851 angler days (50.4 per mile per 
day) and least in October with 2,037 angler days (10.4 per mile per day). Assuming 
a cost per angler of 20 dollars, the 6. .3 miles of stream were valued at $590,960 in 
1948 to fishermen. Possible developments for the future in Rock Creek Gorge might 
provide for 9.347 more angler days. The 1948 creel count showed that 3,963 anglers 
fished 6,119 hours for a total of 11.956 trout; 9,956 (83.2 percent) were rainbow 
trout, 2,004 (16.7 percent) were brown trout, and 5 (0.04 percent) were eastern 
brook. Zero catches totaled 990 (32.5 percent). Average catch per angler per day 
was 3.0 and average catch per angler per hour was 1.9. 

Vestal, Elden H. and Leon A. Talbott 

Aerial fi.sh-planting in the High Sierra, Season of 1949. Submitted March 7, 
1950. 16 pp., including 2 tables. 

Abstract : A report of the first large-scale airplane fish planting in the 
High Sierra Region of California. July 20 to 29, 1949. Includes tabulation and 
discussion of a series of practical fish-planting tests at Virginia Lakes. ^Nlono County, 
as well as a detailed list (Table 2) of all plants made. Estimated cost of the planting 
work is discussed. A summary of the planting is provided on page 11. 

Wales, J. H. 

Some thoughts on trout management. Submitted May 27, 1949. 16 pp., in- 
cluding 2 figures. 

Abstract : Ideas are expressed regarding : 1. Improvement of environment. 
2. Reduction of predation. 3. Introduction of new species. 4. Planting of native 
species. 

Creel census. May 1, 1949, Shasta River, Siskiyou Countv. Submitted May 31, 
1949. 3 pp., including 2 tables. 

Abstract : Second annual creel census of angling iu a section of Shasta 
River from highway 99 crossing near Treka downstream. Anglers checked — 36. 
Catch 140 fish or 3.9 per angler day. All immature steelhead, average length 7.1 
inches. 

Klamath River fish count, Klamathon Racks. Submitted February 23, 1950. 
11 pp., including 2 tables and 1 figure. 

Abstract : The racks were placed in the Klamath River on August 15 and 
removed on November 17, 1949. During this period 11,212 king salmon, 541 silver 
salmon, and 2,836 steelhead adults were counted through on their spawning migra- 
tion upstream. This is the first year that a complete count of the silver salmon has 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 111 

been kept. Since 1925 there have been 16 years in which the king salmon have 
been counted. The average annual count for this period is 12,068. An electric eye 
counting device was tested and found reasonably successful. It is recommended that 
next year the racks be left in the river until the silver salmon run is completed and 
longer if possible. 

Shasta River fish count, Siskiyou County, 1949-50. Submitted March 10, 1950. 

4 pp., including 2 tables. 

Abstract : The Shasta River counting station was put in operation on Sep- 
tember 15 and was maintained until January 19, when high water caused a rotten 
timber to give way and several sections of the racks were washed away. The first 
king salmon passed through the racks on September 28, the last October 14 ; 
total king salmon count was 193. The first silver salmon was counted on October 24, 
the last on December 20; total 312. The first steelhead apjieared on Octol)er 3 and 
to the time the racks washtul out 401 fish were counted through ; probably the 
greatest part of the run occurred after this. It is recommended that if a new station 
can be established before September, 1950 the present station be abandoned; if this 
cannot be done the present station should be used to count the king salmon run 
only. 

Creel census, Shasta River, Siskiyou County, April 29, 1950. Submitted June 8, 
1950. 6 pp., including 3 tables. 

Abstract: On the opening day of the 1950 fishing season a creel census wa.s 
made on the lower 7 miles of the Shasta River. 48 anglers were interviewed 
and 63 fish measured. 109 anglers were counted and 200 estimated to have fished 
the section on the opening day. The estimated catch per day was 11.5 and the catch 
per hour was 4.35. All fish seen were immature steelhead ranging in length from 
4.5 to 9.5 inches, with an average of 7.0 inches. Rough estimates of the pressure 
on this section of the river indicate that while fishing lasted (April 29-May 21) the 
total catch in this section was 8,500 fish, largely 2-year old steelhead. 

Sacramento River Experimental Streard, 1949 report. Sul)mitted May 22, 
1950. 21 pp., 11 tallies. 

Abstract : Results of the creel census on the South and Middle Forks of 
the Sacramento River and on 14 lakes and 2 tributary streams are reported. Results 
of shocking experiments on the South Fork are given. Following is a brief summary 
for the 2 forks : South Fork — 439 anglers ; 2,581 total catch ; catch per hour 2.59 ; 
wild rainbow trout 2,077 ; hatchery rainbow trout 470 ; eastern brook 14. Middle 
Fork — 179 anglers; 1,555 total catch; catch per hour 2.55; wild rainbow trout 
1,184 ; hatchei-y rainbow trout 371. 

Pine Creek Basin, Modoc County, Stream Improvement Project. Submitted 
June 16, 1950. 4 pp. 

Abstract : Recommendations are made for lake and stream improvement 
in Pine Creek Basin, Modoc ("ounty. The following projects are recommended : 

1. A rock and dirt fill dam to form a 15-acre lake in Pine Basin meadow. 

2. A rock and dirt fill dam to deepen a small lake already in existence. 

3. Several small dams to form pools in Pine Creek itself. Up to 10 such small 
dams could be constructed. 

Wales, J. H., and M. Coots 

Creel census. May 1, 1949. Klamath River, Siskiyou Countv. Submitted June 6, 
1949. 3 pp. 

Abstract : The Klamath River was checked on opening day from Copco 
to Humboldt line, a distance of 134 miles. Anglers counted, 357. Estimated catch 

5 fish per angler or 1,785 fish. All immature steelhead, average length 7.0 inches. 

Wales, J. H., and E. R. German 

Castle Lake trout investigation, 1949 season. Second phase : Eastern brook 
trout. Submitted May 16, 1950. 23 pp., including 20 tables. 

Abstract : Catch for 1949 was 4,928 trout in 1,067 angler days ; 4.6 fish 
per day ; 1.78 fish per hour. Of yearling eastern brook planted in 1947, 48 percent 
had been caught by end of 1949 season. Of fingerling eastern brook planted in 1947, 
21 percent had been taken by end of 1949 season. Of the eastern brook fingerlings 
planted in 1948, significantly more were caught with mark of LV and Ad than of 
Ad mark alone. High survival of plants has caused reduction in food and in growth. 
Fingerling plant after two yeai's in lake averages only 6.7 inches. 



112 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

Castle Lake trout investigations — Report for 1948. Second phase : Eastern 
brook trout. (Siskiyou County). Submitted May 24, 1949. 19 pp., including 20 
tables. 

Abstract : Anglers' catch for 1948 was 5,199 eastern brook trout by 1,213 
anglers for an average of 4.3 per day and 1.36 per angler hour. Two year groups were 
represented. Up to the end of the 1948 season 46 percent of the 1947 yearling plant 
had been caught and 8.9 percent of the 1947 fingerling plant. 28 percent of the angler 
days resulted in zero catches. The largest were continually being caught so that 
no large fish ever developed. There was a large movement out of the lake with the 
overflow in the fall. 1,653 fish went down the outlet stream in November. Growth 
rate was relatively .slow, slower than in the Mt. Shasta Hatchery. The C. F. was 
only medium, the lake may be slightly overcrowded. Plankton seemed to be returning 
after having been killed out by rotenone. Pounds of bottom food was estimated at 
149 per acre. 

Sacramento River Test Stream report for 1948. Submitted July 22, 1949. 17 
pp., 5 figures. 

Abstract : Results of the creel census on the South and Middle Forks of 
the Sacramento River and on 15 lakes of this basin are reported. Following is a 
brief summary for the 2 forks : South Fork — 564 anglers ; 2,.500 total catch ; catch 
per hour 1.44 ; wild rainbow 1,749 ; hatchery rainbow 696 ; eastern brook 54 ; brown 
1. Middle Fork — 122 anglers ; 839 total catch ; catch per hour 2.40, wild rainbow 
698, hatchery rainbow 140 ; eastern brook 1. 

Warren, Charles E. (Student Biologist) 

The extent and efEect of pollution resulting from the Modesto Sewage Farm 
Levee Break. Submitted August .30, 1949. 12 pp., including 5 figures and 3 tables. 
Abstract : A break occurred in a levee at the Modesto sewage farm on 
August 21, 1949. This report covers an investigation of the extent and effect of 
damage done as a result of the sewage break. Through oxygen depletion much fish 
life was destroyed in the Tuolumne River ard down the San Joaquin River to Salmon 
Slough. Here the main pollution passed into Salmon Slough, dissipating itself about 
seven or eight miles below its mouth. Damage was inflicted on most species present, 
but the loss of fork-tailed catfish was probably most important. The damage to the 
sport fishery on this fish alone was estimated at $135,000. 

WoodhuU, Chester 

Observations on handling the sampling gill net. Submitted May 19, 1949. 8 pp., 
5 figures. 

Abstract : Observations on methods for easy handling of the sampling gill 
nets are noted. Directions are included for the construction. A gill net rack that 
facilitates laying and hauling of the nets, especially for one man operation. Four 
photos illustrate operation of the net and rack. 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF PATROL AND 
LAW ENFORCEMENT 

The number of employees remained about the same as in the previous 
biennium. Promotional and open examinations were held for wardens, 
and as a result, some 30 assistant wardens were advanced to warden 
positions. Further appointments of wardens authorized in the present 
fiscal year from the open list created will be reflected in the next biennial 
report. 

Promotional examinations to fill captain vacancies created by 
various causes were also held. These appointments will be made in the 
1950-51 Fiscal Year. 

The personnel of the bureau as of June 30, 1950, was as follows : 

1 Chief of patrol 1 Intermediate stenograplier-clerk 
6 Assistant chiefs of patrol 2 Intermediate clerks 

10 Land captains 1 Master, fisheries vessel 

2 Marine captains 1 Motor vessel engineman 

2 Captains, fish patrol boat 2 Assistant motor vessel enginemen 

173 Wardens and assistant wardens 4 Deckhands, fish patrol boat 

2 Warden pilots 1 Ship's cook 

2 Senior stenographer-clerks 

No change in the general administrative program was made during the 
present biennium. For patrol purposes, the State is divided into five land 
districts and one marine district, with headquarters at San Francisco, 
Redding, Sacramento, Fresno, Los Angeles and Terminal Island, each 
in charge of an Assistant Chief of Patrol. 

The Wardens' Reserve Force was increased during the period. 
A unit was established in the San Francisco area, another in the Fresno 
district. Appointments are made only after thorough training, the 
applicant being required to attend a course of instruction in law enforce- 
ment technique one night a week for a period of eight or ten weeks, 
after which he must pass a satisfactory examination before being eligible 
for appointment. 

These units select their own captains and squad leaders. The leaders 
are held strictly responsible for the conduct of their men to the local 
patrol headquarters. They furnish their own uniforms and equipment, 
and are instructed to work closely with the regular warden in the district. 

These men have exhibited none of the selfish characteristics of some 
of the old-time volunteer badge-holders, and are always willing to set 
aside their personal desires to hunt and fish in order to assist the regular 
warden in his duties of protecting fish and game. 

No training schools were held for the regular patrol force during 
the period of this report. Most of the men had this training in previous 
classes. It is intended that a school will be set up early in 1951. 

Six small power boats for patrol activities were acquired during the 
period of this report, some being replacement units for boats which were 
surveyed because of age and obsolescence. A 36-foot steel boat was built 
for San Francisco Bay patrol. This proved to be unsatisfactory for patrol 
work, and was transferred to the Bureau of Marine Fisheries for use in 
coastal research work. 

The two 63-foot A. C. R. boats purchased during the previous bien- 
nium, equipped with radar, have proved most successful in patrolling 
Southern California waters. Negotiations are now under way to acquire 

(113) 



114 



PISH AND GAME COMMISSION 




Figure 20. 63-foot Fish and Game patrol boat BLUEFIN. The commission operates 
two of these vessels in Southern California waters. Equipped witli two 630-h.D. Hall 
Scott Defender engines, radar, radio and full marine equipment. Photograph hy Vernon 

M. Haden. San Pedro. 



another vessel of this type to cover San Francisco Bay and ocean waters 
adjacent as far south as Monterey. The next fiscal year's budget provides 
for this purchase. 

Considerable progress is being made with car and boat radio com- 
munications for the warden service. A number of areas in the State 
which in the past have not had this type of communications are operating 
satisfactorily with either county sheriff's installations or state facilities. 
In many instances the counties furnish the equipment. 

We had hoped to report that arrests and convictions for the biennium 
would have decreased over the previous period, but this is not the case. 

Total arrests for the biennium were 12,947, an increase of 1,616 
over the previous like period. The average fine was over $43, a slight 
increase over the last biennium. A survey of arrests and fines throughout 
the Nation indicates the average fine to be $21 for fish and game law 
violations. The commission and the bureau at this time wish to thank 
the California courts for their cooperation in assessing penalties more 
than twice the general average for the Nation. 

It will be noted that the arrests, fines and forfeitures were con- 
siderably higher during the first fiscal year than in the second fiscal year 
of this report; however, the jail sentences were more than two and 
one-half times greater in the second fiscal year than in the first. 

A recapitulation of arrests, fines and seizures will be found in 
Appendix E. 



APPENDICES 



11(J 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



APPENDIX A 

STATEMENTS OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE 

STATEMENT OF REVENUE 

For the Period July 1 , 1 948, to June 30,1949 

One Hundredth Fiscal Year 



Revenue for fish and game preservation fund 



1949 series 

Angling 

Hunting 

Deer tags 

Fish tags 

Game tags 

Market fisherman 

Fish importer 

Fish party boat permits 

Fish breeder 

Game breeder 

Kelp license 

Game management area license. 

Game management area tags 

Salmon tags 



Total 1949 series. 



1948 series 

Angling 

Hunting 

Archery-resident 

Archery-nonresident. - 

Commercial hunting club 

Commercial hunting club operator. 

Trapping 

Fish packer and shellfish dealers 

Archery-deer tags 

Deer tags 

Fish tags 

Game tags 

Market fisherman 

Fish importer 

Fish party boat permits 

Fish breeder 

Game breeder 

Game management area licenses 

Game management area tags 

Salmon tags 

Deer meat agents — locker permits. 

Deer meat agents — Wardens 

Waterfowl permits 



Total 1948 series. 

1947 series 
Angling 

Debit 

Hunting 

Archery-deer tags 
Debit 



Total 1947 series 

Total license revenue- 



Detail 



$1,699,074.35 

64.00 

15.00 

6,337.75 

165.15 

73,300.00 

80.00 

647.00 

535 . 00 

2,865.00 

30.00 

330.00 

.54 

48.00 



,445,847.55 

,497,107.10 

1,956.00 

25.00 

700.00 

230.00 

1,272.00 

16,265.00 

734 . 00 

300,313.00 

3,981.24 

438.12 

69,080.00 

10.00 

184.00 

60.00 

375.00 

120.00 

367.83 

146.94 

10,600.50 

937.00 

3,198.00 



$59.00 
958.50 

10.00 



Total 



$1,783,491.79 



3,353,948.28 



889.50 



$5,138,329.67 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



117 



STATEMENT OF REVENUE — Continued 

For the Period July 1 , 1 948, to June 30,1 949 

One Hundredth Fiscal Year 



Revenue for fish and game preservation fund 



Other revenue 

Fish packers tax 

Sardine tax 

Kelp tax revenue 

Lease of kelp beds 

Salmon tax 

Confiscated fish 

Miscellaneous revenue — undetermined 

Miscellaneous revenue 

Court fines 

Interest on surplus money investment fund- 

Total other revenue 



Total Fish and Game Preservation Fund_ 
Less : License Commissions 



Net fish and game preservation fund revenue- 



Detail 



5166,737.41 

87,991.07 

2,236.50 

998.10 

52,084.03 

61,556.86 

24,138.30 

43,111.84! 

177,273.301 

23,198.64 



Total 



$639,336.15 



$5,777,665.62 
248,618.97 



$5,529,046.65 



118 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



STATEMENT OF REVENUE — Continued 

For the Period July 1, 1949, to June 3 0, 19 50 

One Hundred and First Fiscal Year 



Revenue for fish and game preservation fund 



1950 series 

Angling 

Hunting 

Trapping 

Fish packers and shell fish dealers- 

Deer tags 

Fish tags 

Game tags 

Market fishermen 

Fish importers 

Fish party boat permits 

Fish breeders 

Game breeders 

Kelp license 

Game management area licenses-. 

Game management area tags 

Salmon tags 



Total 1950 series. 



1949 series 

Angling 

Hunting 

Archery-resident 

Archery-nonresident 

Commercial hunting club 

Commercial hunting club operator. 

Trapping 

Fish packers and shell fish dealers.. 

Archery deer tags 

Fish tags 

Game tags 

Deer tags 

Alien nonresident deer tags 

Market fishermen 

Fish importers 

Fish party boat permits 

Fish breeder 

Game breeder 

Kelp license 

Game management area licenses 

Game management area tags 

Antelope permits 

Salmon tags 

Pheasant tags 

Catalina deer permits 

Deer meat agents — locker permits. 

Deer meat agents — wardens 

Waterfowl permits 

Elk permits 



Total 1949 series. 



] 948 series 

Angling 

Hunting 

Deer tags 

Deer meat agents — locker permits- 
Total 1948 series 



Total license revenue. 



Detail 



$1,712,956.00 

83.00 

2.00 

570.00 

3.00 

,332.15 

121.80 

,560.00 

85.00 

780.00 

700.00 

,465.00 

20.00 

460.00 

14.85 

160.00 



10,; 

80, i 



,326,234.85 

.451,298.03 

2,625.00 

65.00 

750.00 

215.00 

1,176.00 

2,515.00 

882.00 

6,535.50 

479.76 

308,773.00 

9,910.00 

76,370.00 

5.00 

170.00 

110.00 

505.00 

10.00 

90.00 

518.58 

3,500.00 

37.51 

170,190.00 

1,918.00 

10,311.50 

1,196.00 

4,028.00 

1,250.00 



$269.00 

2,099.50 

11.00 

11.00 



Total 



,810,372.80 



3,381,668.73 



2,390.50 



5,194,432.03 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



119 



STATEMENT OF REVENUE — Continued 

For the Period July 1, 1949, to June 3 0, 19 50 

One Hundred and First Fiscal Year 



Revenue for fish and game preservation fund 



Detail 



Total 



Otiier revenue 

Fish packers tax 

Sardine packers tax 

Salmon packers tax 

Kelp tax 

Lease of kelp beds 

Miscellaneous 

Confiscated fish 

Court fines - 

Interest on surplus money investment fund. 

Total other revenue 



Total Fish and Game Preservation Fund. 
Less : license commissions 



Net Fish and Game Preservation Fund revenue. 



S295,431.79 

168,540.64 

33,098.57 

2,861.25 

1,934.90 

16,703.24 

8,336.22 

60,724.56 

94,569.83 



$682,201.00 



$5,876,633.03 
250,519.81 



.15,626,113.22 



120 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURES 

(as of June 30, 1950) 

For the Period July 1, 1948, to June 3 0, 1949 — One Hundredth Fiscal Year 





Salaries and 
wages 


Operating 
expenses 


Equipment 


Less reim- 
bursement 
for services 
to em- 
ployees 


Total major 
function 




$67,851.81 
776,005.06 
251,193.16 
526,710.16 
486,854.45 
44,006.31 

16,018.88 


$232,023.49 
375,879.09 
126,946.99 
427,572.21 
232,184.32 
39,787.51 

78,697.15 


$5,072.96 
76,221.23 
30,848.80 
111,303.79 
96,587.71 
225.45 

3,276.70 




$304,948.26 


Patrol and law enforcement 

Marine fisheries 


—$20.00 


1,228,085.38 
408 988 95 


Fish conservation 


—13,813.78 
—11,113.76 


1,051,772.38 


Game conservation 


804,512.72 


Licenses ._ _ - 


84,019.27 


Conservation education and 
public information _ 




97,992.73 


Pacific Marine Fisheries Com- 
mission - -- 




12,500.00 


Special item (administration) 










435.60 


Unallocated (administration) 










3.35 


Retirement (administration) 










209,136.30 












89,478.73 














Total expenditures 


$4,291,873.67 















STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURES 

(as of December 31, 1950) 

For the Period July 1, 1949, to June 30, 1950 — One Hundred and First Fiscal Year 





Salaries and 
wages 


Operating 
expenses 


Equipment 


Total major 
function 


Administration . 


$83,806.81 


$290,071.84 


$7,931.10 


$381,809.75 


Less reimbursement — rent and utilities 


— 25,425 . 92 


Less reimbursement — use of auto and op- 








—58,037.43 


Less reimbursement — subsistence 








— 2,984.49 


Patrol and law enforcement _ _ 


781,737.07 
297,097.16 
580,122.02 
533,933.70 
48,283.56 
23,105.24 


388,250.59 
141,326.53 
347,090.58 
297,058.53 
91,145.02 
52,104.57 


128,435.51 

18,564.06 

59,639.90 

157,977.19 

530.83 

4,980.29 


1,298,423.17 


Marine fisheries 


456,987.75 


Fish conservation.. ...___ ... 


986,852.50 


Game conservation ._ . 


988,969.42 


Licenses _ . 


139,959.41 


Conservation education and public information 
Retirement (administration) 


80,190.10 
270,080.56 










1,539.82 


Pacific Marine Fisheries Commission 








12,500.00 












Total expenditures 


$4,530,864.64 













FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 
APPENDIX B 

GAME STATISTICS 



121 



TABLE 1. GAME BIRD RELEASES 
Liberation of Game Farm Birds, January 1, 1948, Through December 31, 1949 



County 


Ring-neck 


Reeves 


Turkey 


Chukar 


Valley 
quail 


Total 




304 
3,013 
4,432 

35 
9,791 
3,874 

20 










304 


Amador 










3 013 


Butte - - .-_ ^ 


94 








4,526 
35 










Colusa 










9 791 


Contra Costa 










3 874 


Del Norte 










20 


El Dorado. _-_ . _ _ 


69 








69 


Fresno 


11,899 
6,233 

682 
9,880 
4,413 
6,580 
1,624 

349 
2,640 
1,123 
1,429 

690 
1 269 








11 899 


Glenn 








25 


6 258 


Humboldt- . 








682 








193 




10 073 


Inyo -- 








4.413 








40 


451 
60 


7,071 








1 684 


Lake 








349 


Lassen - -____ 










2,640 








20 


429 


1,572 








1 429 


Marin _ _ 








64 


754 


Mendocino 








1 269 


Merced 


10,183 
6,835 

629 

290 
1,923 

470 

1,703 

16 

5,790 

3,587 

277 

7,278 

1,811 

10,114 

149 
1,372 
1,033 

111 
1,587 
1,116 
4,007 
5,480 

224 
6,474 
7,715 
3,467 
9,323 

240 
2,000 
3,506 
3,227 










10 183 


Modoc - 










6 835 


Mono . 










629 


Monterey 




64 






354 


Napa 




182 
115 


2 105 










585 


Placer . 








1,703 












16 


Riverside 






210 


. 423 


6,423 


Sacramento 






3,587 


San Benito - 




35 






312 


San Bernardino- - _ 


3 


682 
1,087 


345 
50 


8,308 


San Diego 




2,948 


San Joaquin 






10,114 


San Luis Obispo 




7 






156 










1,372 


Santa Clara _ . 










1,033 


Santa Cruz 










111 


Shasta 










1,587 


Sierra - 








100 


1,216 


Siskiyou 








4,007 


Solano 










5,480 


Sonoma 










224 


Stanislaus .. 








532 


7,006 


Sutter 








7,715 


Tehama 










3,467 


Tulare- _ . 










9,323 


Tuolumne _ _ 










240 


Ventura 






20 




2,020 


Yolo 








3,506 


Yuba 










3,227 














Totals 


172,217 


166 


106 


2,252 


2,776 


177,517 



122 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



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OitDlXl 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



123 



(N 00 t^ t>. O t^ 05 

(N t>. CC C4 "^ Ol C^ 

O M O) 



C<) CD b- 00 O »0 t^ 

(N t^ « ■* M t~ W 

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AND GAME 
























1937 


1938 


1939 


1940 


1941 1942 


1943 


1944 


1945 


1946 


10t7 


1948 


1949 


Totals 








1 




1 






2 


4 


5 




20 


• 










3 










. 1 








1 






27 


I 
2 


...... 


""""4"i""""r 


3 


3 






2 

1 


I 




71 


1 


3 


1 








63 


















1 




1 


2 












1 


3 


3 
1 

' ' V 




8J 












1 


6 
8 
3 


11 


7 

2 

16 


8 
2 


5 

3 

7 


1 

6 
19 


...... 

3 


1 
2 

2 


1 

1 
2 


2 

7 
12 


1 
6 


224 
229 

189 


9 
24 


U 
25 


28 


5 
Ifi 


7 
22 


6 

7 


12 
5 


14 
19 


7 
11 


3 

18 


12 
24 

i" 

6 


5 
6 

" i i 




262 

1 .osn 

2 






I 




3 
2 










1 


23 


5 


12 


10 


5 


13 


5 


9 10 


144 






















1 


12 


15 i 10 


8 12 


9 


7 7 


3 

1 
1 
2 


6 
5 


7 

( 

1 


5 




502 
13 


8 
2 


5 3 1 2 




I 




101 


.| 3 4 


12 


1 


i) ' 


102 






1 






i 




i 

7 


""2 

18 

2 




3 


...... 

12 16 


4 




1" 


1 


4 
15 


146 


21 


U 31 


20 S 


20 1 6 


691 

7 






_ 


1 




1 




fi 










1 





























3 

18 


2 
29 


34 


24 


17 


11 
1 
1 


19 


U iu 1 10 1 G 


17 


14 


13 


R46 
4 


5 


-i i 


) 


1 




1 








35 


5 










18 










1 

1 


— . 














7 


4 


2 
1 
3 
















117 


j 












I'l 


2 


3 




""""2"i::::::""T 


5 


1 


5 


i 

i 


1 




115 
1 




1 








! 


1 


3 




65 








2 
6 










4 
14 


4 
4 


15 
11 


8 
10 


6 



2 

2 


1 


7 
2 


5 
9 


4 

8 


3 
10 


8 


172 

275 















:::::::::::: 














2 


2 


4 


5 


4 


5 


2 i 7 


3 


4 


5 


1 


9 


6 


2(fi 










i 






i 

2 
22 


..... 

"is 


1 
II 

12 


1 


5 

2 


11 
5 


11 

1 


18 i 5 

4 1 


6 


4 

9 4 


6 
3 


9 
4 


43S 

144 

4 


18 


8 


11 


8 7 5 


18 


9 


4 


10 


699 










2 3 


1 
4 


...... 


2 
3 


1 
10 


I 
5 


"JT 


f) 


43 


18 


18 


22 


12 


31 


13 


540 









i 




1 








1 




32 




3 
















25 






































1 


II 
22 
14 


"2 
16 
15 


"6 

18 
8 


2 


6 

29 

8 

3 


10 

28 

15 

1 


9 
50 
13 


3 4 
38 24 
17 12 

1 6 


6 
19 

8 


2 
23 

6 


17 

13 

17 

3 


11 

15 

21 

2 


15 
26 
18 


I3H 
933 
505 
185 










1 






1 


9 




1 ' 


1 








165 


2 
5 








3 


1 


2 






3i 2 










202 


45 










Ifl5 


199 




224 


253 


292 


228 243 ! 162 ] 150 

1 ; 


177 


143 


219 


10,324 






















- 









FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL, REPORT 



125 



APPENDIX C 

MARINE FISHERIES STATISTICS 



TABLE 1. CALIFORNIA FISHERIES 


PRODUCTION 






1948 


1949 


Total 


Total landings, pounds. ._ __ . _ 


899,775,000 

12,274,848 

44,450 

2,833,197 

140,009 


1,135,346,000 

13,161,076 

66,504 

6, .591, 234 

134,021 


2,035,121,000 


Cases of fish canned 


25,435,924 


Trips of fish menl prnHiif^pH 


110,9.54 


Gallons of fish oil produced 


9,424,431 


Gallons of liver oil produced 


274,030 



TABLE 2. POUNDS AND VALUE' OF COMMERCIAL FISH 
LANDINGS IN CALIFORNIA 



Species 


1948 


1949 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Yellowfin tuna- 


191,724,000 

.58,772,000 

362,037,000 

37,623,000 

7,769,000 

11,890,000 

39,386,000 

72,898,000 

21,655,000 

2,481,000 

6,697,000 

10,446,000 

1,518,000 

3,229,000 

2,126,000 

6,.541,000 

1,114,000 

1,307,000 

19,256,000 

9,135,000 

2,068,000 

2,059,000 

426,000 

1,114,000 

10,836,000 

15,668,000 


$32,437,000 

9,329,000 

10,732,000 

11,019,000 

2,009,000 

1,261,000 

1,381,000 

2,136,000 

1,139,000 

1,051,000 

1,125,000 

1,163,000 

549,000 

371,000 

330,000 

396,000 

268,000 

269,000 

518,000 

1,062,000 

175,000 

173,000 

27,000 

355,000 

348,000 

890,000 


185,612,000 

78,575,000 

633,475,000 

44,279,000 

6,848,000 

11,117,000 

49,771,000 

51,250,000 

19,693,000 

1,552,000 

4,389,000 

7,319,000 

1,780,000 

3,568,000 

2,474,000 

6,044,000 

1,412,000 

1,263,000 

6,859,000 

1,835,000 

1,769,000 

1,654,000 

1,336,000 

198,000 

3,322,000 

7,952,000 


$30,295,000 


Skipjack 


11,655,000 


Sardine . 


10,757,000 




8,192,000 


Salmon - - - - _ 


1 678 000 


Crab.. 


1,294,000 


Pacific mackerel. . . 


1,286,000 


.Tack mackerel 


1111 000 


Sole 


918,000 


Shark 


833,000 


Bluefin tuna . 


713,000 


Yellowtail 


686 000 


Spiny lobster . . 


686,000 


Abalone. . . 


398,000 


Barracuda. 


368,000 


Rockfish . . . 


340,000 


Whitft Sep. bass 


291,000 


California halibut 


238,000 


Squid . 


184,000 


Bonito 


179,000 


Sablefish ... . . 


135,000 


Lingcod 


125,000 


Shad 


107,000 


BroadbiU swordfish 

Anchovy . 


88,000 
56,000 


All other 


635,000 






Totals. - - 


899,775,000 


$80,513,000 


1,135,346,000 


$73,248,000 







1 Value to the fishermen. 



126 



FISH AXD GAME COMMISSION 



TABLE 3.. YEARLY LANDINGS IN POUNDS — COMMERCIAL FISH 
Exclusive of Mollusks and Crustaceans^ 



Year 


Pounds 


Year 


Pounds 


1916 


88,390,465 
202,987,474 
254,238,270 
256,120,774 
215,431,810 
129,086,209 
176,216,485 
246,383,030 
325,948,382 
425,695,707 
382,602,891 
471,210,260 
572,070,120 
841,149,549 
680,858,788 
491,083,110 
542,060,362 


1933 


811,002,474 
1 378 154 189 


1917 


19.34 


1918 


1935 


1 433 616 046 


1919 


1936 ._ 


 1,753,632,108 
1,354,050,220 
1 298 036 943 


1920 


1937 ._. 


1921 


1938 


1922 


1939 


1,472,988,721 
1,284,881,633 


1923 


1940 


1924 

1925 

1926 


1941 

1942 

1943 


1,517,533,106 
1,166,614.194 
1,215,161,305 


1927 


1944 


1,430,202,850 


1928 


1945 -- 


1 138 943 309 


1929 


1946 .. . 


855,997,768 


1930 


1947 . 


763,324,829 


1931 


1948 . 


862,258,458 


1932 


1949 


1,110,151,411 



^ Includes sardine deliveries to reduction ships and tuna importations. 





TABLE 4. 


COMMERCIAL 


FISHING 


FLEET 




Home port 


1948-1949 


1949-19.50 


Eureka 

Sacramento 

San Francisco _ 


546 
394 
750 
406 

244 

2,230 

845 

307 


581 
369 
800 


Monterey . _ - . 


434 


Santa Barbara _ .. 


244 


Los Angeles. _ 


2,362 


San Diego - . 


946 


Alaska, Oregon, 


Washington 




424 


Totals . 


5,722 


6,160 







FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 127 

TABLE 5. NATIONALITY OF LICENSED COMMERCIAL FISHERMEN 



Nativity 



1948-1949 


1949-1950 


10,152 


10,734 


1,386 


1,401 


772 


690 


446 


523 


414 


468 


204 


194 


143 


170 


98 


99 


87 


91 


51 


70 


52 


57 


59 


56 


55 


53 


59 


61 


37 


35 


30 


33 


31 


32 


185 


205 


14,261 


14,962 



United States 

Italy 

Jugoslavia 

Norway 

Portugal 

Great Britain 

Japan 

Sweden 

Mexico 

Finland 

Spain 

Germany 

Greece 

Denmark 

Costa Rica 

Philippine Islands 

Russia 

All others 

Totals 



TABLE 6. RESIDENCE OF LICENSED COMMERCIAL FISHERMEN 



Region of residence 



1948-1949 


1949-1950 


929 


917 


665 


619 


1,292 


1,325 


1,267 


1,319 


622 


594 


5,832 


5,961 


2,914 


3,273 


716 


918 


24 


36 


14,261 


14,962 



Eureka 

Sacramento 

San Francisco 

Monterey 

Santa Barbara 

Los Angeles 

San Diego 

Alaska, Oregon, Washington 
Mexico 

Totals 



128 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



X 

Q 
Z 

w 

< 



m 
O 

u 

to 
M 

Pi 

Q 
Z 

< 

O 
H 

H 

C/5 








■♦- 

c 
b- 




OOOOmOlMTfOCOOTfOOOOOOOCOOOlt^iOCOOt^rHOrt 
OOOOC^Tj>cOCg01'0500COOOOO-*OiO(NCOiOO'*t^'>J<05 
COO'^_i-J_-^_C0050'-HlOi-<COCO(MOlOO>C^XCOCO-^'-^OCD^'»^ 
O »0 C^ CO 00 (N lO »o' lo" 00 o" OO" CO »o' of 00 oT CO OO' CO t>.' lo' :£ '-^ O tC x" 
003>0>0<0-*t~'HTrOOlNCD'*<0 O'^'t^TfirtcOC^ CO(N(NO 

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13 




ANTED — 1948 
nted in Each County 


3 

£ 


o 


26,540 
9,500 

68,793 
257,420 

36,000 


01 o 


122,264 

2,000 

15,000 

2,310 
397,500 
215,434 

9,510 
182,970 

109,700 

163,081 

112,300 

425,582 

316,742 

149,290 
74,369 


1. FISH PL 
eared Fish Pla 


n 

+-> 

o 


139,120 
147,345 


TABLE 
Hatchery R 


03 


25,600 

33,768 





o 
'S 


"^OOcOO'NOO»OCO'^OOt^O>OCOOiOr^»Ot-iOt^C^Oi-( 

oooc^cococ60cooooococ^oo—i^ooe^co-HO'oo-*05 

CO_ 0_ Tt<_ .-H in ,-H Tf 0_ 00_ 0_ ^_ -H^ C0_ •-<_ O ^_ 02 C^)_ O CD_ CD_ C0_ -<_ t^_ C0_ i-"_ Tj<_ 

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COOiCO'C'^'^fCO^ON.Cv*'^'^'^ (N-^t^'-HiCCOOO oo^c^co 
•-I COt-H OOO .-HTt<.-H(M.-^CO CO t^ lO 1005 CO 








i : i : ! : M : ; M M i M : M i M§ 
; i 1 i i i IJ i i J i i I J ; I 1 1 ; ! ; 1 :| 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



129 



OTOOOO^-^root-oojoo-Hoo 
■^(NO'-ioooO'-^as-HOiO'oooiNco 

(N 0_ — <_ 05_ rf ■^^ 0_ T)<_ t> TO -->_ c» IN cn ^_ ro 
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1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 en 1 1 1 1 1 1 

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71,400 
59,200 
58,220 


CO 

o 


1 1 1 1 1 1 lOOOOOOOO 1 1 
1 1 1 1 1 1 lOt^iOCcOiOTtH P 1 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CO C^l 00 'O CO »0 CO 1 1 

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San Diego 

San Francisco 

San Luis Obispo 

San Mateo 

Santa Barbara 

Santa Clara 

Santa Cruz 

Shasta 

Sierra 

Siskiyou 

Tehama 

Trinity 

Tulare 

Tuolumne 

Ventura 

Yuba 


S 

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03 
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-49247 



130 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 

TABLE 2. HATCHERY REARED WARM-WATER FISHES — 1948 





Number of 
fish 


Smallmouth black bass 

Largemouth black bass 

Sacramento perch 

Bluegill 


24,432 

399 

5,006 

13.781 


Total  


43,618 



TABLE 3. FISH RESCUED — 1948 



Trout 

Rainbow 1,880 

Eastern brook 500 

Steelhead 272,271 

Brown 561 

Cutthroat ol 

Total 

Salmon 

liing 

Silver 

Total 

State-county cooperative 
trout rescued 

Steelhead 

Salmon 

Total 108,750 



275,263 



16,290 
53,914 



70,204 



84,300 
24,450 



Warm-water fishes 

Smafimouth black bass 34,300 

Largemouth black bass 48,273 

Striped bass — 2,157 

Sacramento perch 6,021 

Crappie 15,343 

Brown bullhead 298,907 

White catfish 2,509 

Bluegill 51 ,652 

deen sunfish 792 

Warmouth 35 

Total 459,989 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



131 



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FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 
TABLE 5. HATCHERY REARED WARM- WATER FISHES — 1949 



133 





Number of 
fish 


Smallmouth black bass 

Largemouth black bass 

Sacramento perch 


851 

77,936 

175 


Bluegill 


11,095 


Total 


90,057 



TABLE 6. FISH RESCUED — 1949 



Trout 

Rainbow 

Steelhead 

Brown 

Cutthroat 

Golden 


2,176 

486,584 

1,250 

2 

380 


Total 

Salmon 

King -; 

Silver 


490,392 

17,409 
107,733 


Total 

State-county cooperative 
trout rescued 

Steelhead 

Salmon 


125,142 

115,705 
54,787 


Total 


170,492 



Warm-water fishes 

Smallmouth black bass. 
Largemouth black bass. 

Sacramento perch 

Crappie 

Brown bullhead 

White catfish 

Bluegill 

Green sunfish 

Warmouth 

Carp 

Blackfish 

Fresh-water sculpin 

Total 



13,062 

289,720 

175 

31,292 

62,669 

6,826 

638,228 

7,649 

81 

211 

227 

2 



1,050,142 



134 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



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FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



135 



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136 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 



TABLE 8, HATCHERY REARED WARM- WATER FISHES 
January 1 to June 30, 1950 (inclusive) 





Number of 
fish 


Largemouth black bass 

BluegUl 


4,981 
195 


Total 


5,176 



TABLE 9. FISH RESCUED 
January 1 to June 30, 1950 (inclusive) 



Trout 

Rainbow 2,080 

Steelhead 242,741 

Cutthroat 60 

Brown 1,336 

Total 

Salmon 

King 

Silver 

Total 38,159 



246,217 



1,365 
36,794 



Warm-water fishes 

Smallmouth black bass 7,916 

Largemouth black bass 15,932 

Black baiss 1,338 

Brown bullhead 166,693 

White catfish 668 

Bluegill 41,635 

Green sunfish 4,060 

Crappie 18,913 

Golden shiners 7,504 

Blackfish 97 

Total 264,756 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



137 



APPENDIX E 
ARRESTS, FINES AND SEIZURES 

TABLE 1. TOTAL ARRESTS FOR PERIOD OF 48 YEARS 



1902-1904. 
1904-1906. 
1906-1908. 
1908-1910- 
1910-1912. 
1912-1914. 
1914-1916. 
1916-1918. 
1918-1920. 
1920-1922- 
1922-1924. 
1924-1926- 



550 


1926-1928 


774 


1928-1930. 


1,192 


1930-1932 . ... 


1,771 


1932-1934 


2,063 


1934-1936. 


1,993 


1936-1938. . - 


2.087 


19.38-1940 . 


1,797 


1940-1942 .... 


1,891 


1942-1944. 


2,258 


1944-1946 .. 


2,715 


1946-1948 


3,207 


1948-1950 



4,390 
5,388 
5,237 
3,795 
4,535 
6,382 
7,444 
7,262 
4,298 
5,902 
11,331 
12,947 



TABLE 2. ARRESTS AND CONVICTIONS — RECAPITULATION 





Number of 
arrests 


Fines 


Jail 

sentences 

(days) 


Fish cases 

1948-1949 .... .. 


3,674 
3,040 


$161,879.13 
$169,779.00 


5121^ 
1,798H 


Game cases 

1948-1949 .. 




Totals for 1948-1949 


6,714 
3,728 
2,505 


$331,658.13 

$97,601.72 

$132,645.20 


2,311 


Fish cases 

1949-1950 . 


753 H 


Game cases 

1949-1950 . 


5,134 






Totals for 1949-1950 : . . . 


6,233 

6,714 
6,233 


$230,246.92 

$331,658.13 
230,246.92 


5,887H 


Recapitulation: 
1948-1949 


2,311 


1949-1950. 


5,8873^ 




Totals. 


12,947 


$561,905.05 


8,198J^ 





138 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 
TABLE 3. SEIZURES OF FISH AND GAME 



Fish 


July 1, 1948 

to 
June 30, 1949 


July 1, 1949 

to 
Jime .30, 19.50 


Total 


Abalone . 


3,839 

2 

73 


6,691 


10..530 
2 


Abalone, pounds _ 


Barracuda- _ 


14 

207 

168 

25 

1,362 

11 

1,400 

97 

7 

303 

116 

15,775 

31 

23,522 


87 
■>07 


Barracuda, pounds ._ 


Rock bass .. _ 


71 


239 

9t 


Sand bass 


Striped bass _ 


1,840 

53 

2.50 

21 

39 

493 

521 

8,909 


3.202 
64 


Blacl: bass 


White sea bass, pounds 


1 650 


Bass, pounds . 


118 
46 


Carp . 


Catfish 


7Qfi 


Catfish, pounds . 


637 

24,684 

31 


Clams 


Clams, pounds _ . 


Cockles 


22,615 
1 

72 


46.137 
1 


Corbina _ 


Crabs __ 


179 

244 

88 

42 


2.51 


Crabs, poimds 


244 


Crappie.- . ._ 


101 

8 

• 158 

8 

110 

546 

5,023 


TRQ 




g 


Frogs . .- -. 


■^00 


Halibut ___ 


s 


Halibut, pounds _ . 




110 




1,374 

682 

1,675 


1,920 
5 705 


Lobsters, pounds 




1 675 


Mullet : : 


5 

1 


5 


Octopus_ _.. . 


31 
16 


32 


Octopus, pounds _ 


16 




9 

64 

139 


9 


Rockfish _- .. 




64 


Salmon _._ 


82 

421 

28 

153,. 504 


■'21 


Salmon, pounds _ 


421 


Sardines _. - 




28 


Sardines, pounds . 


850,193 

6971^ 

128 


1 003 701 




6971^ 
128 


Scallops _. 






3 


3 


Shad 


5 

3,747 

9 

1 






7,198 


10 945 


Steelhead __ 


9 




3 

6 

2,589 

4 

82,260 


4 


Sturgeon, pounds _ _ 


6 


Trout ._. 


2,582 

195 

3,142 

8,298 


5 171 


Trout, pounds '__ 


199 




85,402 


Yellowfin, pounds. 


8 298 




72 


72 









FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 



139 



TABLE 3. SEIZURES OF FISH AND GAME — Continued 



Game 



Antelope 

Bear 

Bear meat, pounds . 

Beaver 

Coots 

Deer 

Deer meat, pounds. 

Doves 

Ducks 

Elk 



Elk meat, jars ... 

Elk meat, pounds 

Geese 

Grebe 

Grouse 

Migratory waterfowl. 
Moose meat, pounds. 

Muskrats 

Non-game 

Pheasants 

Pigeons 

Pine marten 

Quail 

Rabbits 

Sagehen 

Shorebirds 

Squirrels 

Swans __: 

Skins, beaver 

Skins, mink 

Skins, muskrat 

Skins, sea otter 



July 1, 1948 

to 
June 30, 1949 



1 
60 



112 

279 

2,476 

1,406 

2,639 

1 

26 

400 

129 

13 

4 



11 

79 

347 

117 

1 

105 

106 

2 

23 

16 

33 

4 

4 

38 

2 



July 1, 1949 

to 
June 30, 1950 



5 

1 

20 

1 



299 

2,319 

1,283 

1,094 

2 



74 
199 



2 
32 
30 



22 

269 

17 



122 

184 

2 

40 

24 



Total 



5 

2 

80 

1 

112 

578 

4,795 

2,689 

3,733 

3 

26 

474 

328 

13 

6 

32 

30 

11 

101 

616 

134 

1 

227 

290 

4 

63 

40 

33 

4 

4 

38 

2 



140 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION 
TABLE 4. FISH CASES 





July 1, 


1948 to June 30, 1949 


July 1, 


1949 to June 30, 1950 


Offense 


Number 


Fines 


Jail 


Number 


Fines 


Jail 




of 
arrests 


imposed 


sentences 
(days) 


of 
arrests 


imposed 


sentences 

(days) 


Abalone- Undersize; overliinit; without permit; out 














of shell; closed season; no license; failure to show 














license on demand; using diving apparatus in 














Dist. 19A; taking in marine life refuge; failure 














to keep accurate books; failure to deliver tickets; 














using another's license 


375 


$10,290.00 


38 


523 


$13 fi.55 00 


1971^ 


Angling: No license; late angling; failure to show 










^ *TJ,'.*»JT^ , \J\J 


1— ' , 2 


license; possession of gaff; using artificial light; 














night fishing; using another's Ucense; transferring 














license; illegal spearing; more than one line; fishing 














within 150 ft. of dam; closed waters; taking by use 














of firearms; more than 2 attractor blades; false 














statement in obtaining license; game fish for bait; 


m 












set hues; closed waters; using dip net; giU net; 














blocking stream; illegal seining; backdating 














license; chumming; trespassing to fish; using 














salmon eggs; chumming in inland waters 


1,468 


24,564.00 


64? 2 


1,242 
2 


19,109.50 


861/9 


Albacore: Sale of undersized 








175.00 


OU/^ 


Bass, Black: Xo hcense; closed season; using set 










lines; more than 1 pole; selling; possession of 














undersize 


6 


185.00 


50 


10 


655.00 




Bass, Kelp: No license 








1 


25.00 




Bass, Rock: Taking overlimit; no Ucense; using 










another's license 


4 


125.00 




8 


230.00 




Bass, Striped: Overlimit; undersize; set line; failure 




to show on demand; night fishing; offering prizes; 














taking with 2 rods; on commercial boat; sale; 














resisting arrest; borrowed license; mutilated fish 














and game plates 


398 


12,682.20 


200 


365 


9,519.50 


5 


Bass, White Sea: Possession on purse seiner; under- 














size; sale of undersize 


1 


25.00 




3 


100.00 




Barracuda: Taking undersize; overlimit; selling from 














sport boat 


3 


50.00 




2 


35.00 




Carp: Closed season; fyke nets; night fishing; no 














license ; no wholesale Ucense 


2 


300.00 




3 


135.00 




Catfish: Overlimit; operating fish trap; undersize; 




taking with fyke nets; taking without license; 














taking at night; other than by angUng; in District 














22; with more than 1 line; sale of undersize; taking 














with spear ; failure to give receipt 


46 


2,208.00 




63 


2,210.00 


50 


Clams, Big Neck: Overlimit; no license 








26 


650.00 




Clams, Cockle: OverUmit; undersize; no license; 










taking in closed season; using another's license; 














failure to show license on demand 


79 


1,610.00 




92 


1,885.00 


18 


Clams, Gaper: Overlimit; no license 








7 


125.00 




Clams, Pismo: OverUmit; undersize; out of shell; 










taking at night; no Ucense; possession of forks and 














shovels in refuge; possession for commercial use; 














possession undersize in refuge; failure to return 














undersize to water; taking in refuge 


482 


12,250.50 


115 


448 


11,887.00 


250 


Clams, Razor: OverUmit 








1 


25.00 




Commercial: no license; failure to deUver reports; 










illegal gill net; using drag net in less than 25 














fathoms; fish wastage; closed area; round haul net 














District 20; undersize fish; trawl nets in closed 














district; no dealer license; no boat registration; 














failure to issue receipts; no party boat Ucense; 














resisting arrest; undersize sardines; no aUen 














license; boat improperly numbered; failure to 
















259 


9,215.00 


45 


343 


9,107.50 




Crabs: Undersize; taking females; failure to show 














on demand; possession of over 500 lbs. on drag 














boat ; closed season 


7 


155.00 




18 

1 


675.00 
10.00 




Corbina: Spearing 





FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 
TABLE 4. FISH CASES — Continued 



141 





July 1, 1948 to June 30, 1949 


July 1, 1949 to June 30, 1950 


Offense 


Number 
of 

arrests 


Fines 
imposed 


Jail 

sentences 
(days) 


Number 
of 

arrests 


Fines 
imposed 


Jail 

sentences 

(days) 


Crappie: Overlimit; possession closed season; taking 


5 
35 


$95.00 
875.00 




13 

16 

1 

58 


$380.00 

480.00 
suspended 

3,445.00 




Frogs: Undersize; taking closed season; possession 

of spears within 300 ft. of prohibited stream 

Halibut' Failure to show license 




Lobsters: Closed season; oversize; undersize; op- 
erating traps in closed district; baiting traps with 
abalone; failure to show on demand; wilfully dis- 
turbing another's traps; use of traps in District 
21" possession and sale of undersize 


50 
3 


2,815.00 
250.00 




39 


Mullet' Illegal nets 




Miissfls' No license 




3 

1 

1 
1 

45 

1 

72 
29 


25.00 
25.00 
10.00 
10.00 

4,065.00 
10.00 

2,225.00 
1,575.00 




Octopus: No license _- 


1 


25.00 




















Pollution: Oil; sawdust; bilge; fish refuse; copper 
sulphate; bluestone; black leaf 40; clorax; cloro- 


49 


5,520.00 






Rockfish* No license 




Salmon: Illegally taken; snagging; overlimit; shoot- 
ing; taking from spawning area; spearing; gaffing; 
closed season; at night; mutilation; taking within 
250 ft. of fish way; taking without license; using 
fyke nets; using borrowed license; taking from 
closed stream; possession untagged; possession gill 
netted - 


76 

39 
1 


3,085.00 

1,420.00 
10.00 




100 


Sardines: Taking undersize; using illegal net in Dist. 
16; no commercial license; taking for use by packer 
in closed season; using purse seiner in Dist. 20; 
canning sardines taken for bait 








Sea Urchins: Taking from Pt. Lobos State Park 




2 
2 
3 


20.00 

20.00 

suspended 






4 


40.00 






Shark: No license 




Skipjack: Undersize 


1 

5 

1 

30 

242 
2 


150.00 

320.00 

12.00 

820.00 

9,656.00 
300.00 






Steelhead: Closed season; taking other than by 










Sturgeon: Possession; taken in gill net; possession of 
roe 

Sunfish, Bluegill: Overlimit; taking other than by 
angling; closed season; taken too close to dam 

Trout: Using 2 rods; set lines; closed area; taking by 
hand; overlimit; using 3 attractor blades; closed 
season; no Ucense; snagging; chumming; taking at 
night; taking in District 103.6; possession gaff 
within 300 ft. of stream; using artificial light 

Tuna, Yellowfin: Sale of undersize . 




5 
40 

258 
16 

3 


275.00 
1,025.00 

7,745.00 
890.00 

80.00 


27>i 
50 


YeUowtail: Undersize and offering for sale; taking 
overlimit; purchase of undersize and selling under- 
size . 














Totals 


3,674 


$99,052.70 
62,826.43 


5124 


3,728 


$97,601.72 


753M 


Court forfeitures (Sales of fish) 
















 Grand Total 


$161,879.13 

















142 



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION- 
TABLE 5. GAME CASES 



OfTeiise 



Antelope: Possession closed season; taking female; 

using borrowed license; illegal possession 

Bear: Closed season; taking with trap 

Bear Meat: Possession closed season 

Beaver and Mink Hides: Hides and illegal possession. 

Commercial: No breeder's license 

Coots: Closed season; overlimit 

Deer: Failure to tag; closed season; doe; spike buck; 
forked horn; spotted fawn; defacing tag; overlimit; 
in refuge; night hunting; "A" tag in No. 1 deer 
district; tag not validated; using another's tag; 
spotlighting; no tag; failure to retain antlers; 
transport without iier.nit; tagging another's deer; 
taking in refuge; allowing dogs to run; using .22; 
full metal jacketed bullets; removing sex evidence; 
taking deer with Utah hcense (Calif, resident); 
overlimit does; failure to show deer on demand; 
taking another's deer; poss?ssi3n of guns and deer 
in refuge; Calif. resiJent possessing deer on Mon- 
tana license; no valil hunting license 

Deer Meat; Unstamped; closed season; doe; posses- 
sion illegally taken; possession more than 15 days 
after closed season; Calif, resident possession deer 
meat on Colorado resident license; no transport 
permit; no evidence of sex; possessing deer meat 
and gun in refuge 4F; failure to show meat on 
demand; possessing parts of doe; purchase of deer 

meat 

Doves: Late shooting; .22 rifle; from auto; over- 
limit; closed season; late shooting; illegal import; 
poisoning; unplugged gun; possessing nest and 

eggs; no license; using air i)istol 

Ducks: Closed season; purchase; overlimit; taking 
in refuge; unplugged gun; no stamp; poisoning; 
failure to show; offer for sale; illegal import; late 
shooting; shooting from motorboat; driving with 
airplane; illegal license; failure to declare; Cahf. 
resident using Utah license; using borrowed 
license; shooting from car; bringing illegal ducks 
into Calif.; making false statement on license; 
using live decoys; possession wooden duck in 
closed area; shooting at ducks with .22 rifle in 

game refuge 

Elk: Possession of meat; possession of elk; Calif, 
resident possessing meat with Idaho resident 
license; overlimit; taking of cow with bull 
permit; no evidence of sex; possession by Calif, 
resident on Wyoming license; no transport permit- 
Geese: Closed season; late shooting; overlimit; 
shooting from motorboat; unplugged gun; using 
.22 rifle; no stamp; possessing gun and geese on 
refuge; stealing game; night hunting; possession of 
cackling goose; on closed area; hunting without 

valid license 

Grebe : Possession 

Grouse; Possession closed season 



July 1, 1948 to June 30, 1949 



Number 

of 
arrests 



12 



520 



Fines 
imposed 



S350.00 

100.00 

20.00 



115 



159 



574 



325.00 



45,Ui().00 



Jail 

sentences 

(days) 



(13 



July 1, 1949 to June 30, 1950 



Number 

of 
arrests 



Fines 
imposed 



$850.00 
275.00 



510 



UI.IJIU.OU 



5,668.00 



31,365.00 



625.00 



36 


1,540.00 


1 


50.00 


7 


425.00 



410 



50 



365 



120 



145 



374 



94 



400.00 
25.00 



46,066.00 



11,791.00 



5,555.00 



Jail 

sentences 
fdays) 



425 



2,950 



1,071 



15,937.50 



450.00 



3,137.50 



35.00 



FORTY-FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT 
TABLE 5. GAME CASES — Continued 



143 





July 1, 


1948 to June 30, 1949 


July 1, 


1949 to June 30, 1950 


Offense 


Number 


Fines 


Jail 


Number 




Jail 




of 
arrests 


imposed 


sentences 

(days) 


of 
arrests 


imposed 


sentences 
(days) 


Hunting; In refuge; late and early shooting; from 














auto; at night; with .22; no license; from highway; 














metal jacketed bullets; power boat; spotlighting; 














unplugged gun; hunting on posted land; tres- 














p)assing on Game Management Area; hunting in 














closed zone in cooperative hunting area; illegal 














importation of game; failure to show license on 














demand; possessing arm band off cooperative 














area; making false statement on license; failure to 














return arm bands; non-resident using resident 














license; permit hunting on Game Management 














Area without dog in group; transferring license 














and tags 


1 0.33 


$40,516.00 


33 'o 


546 


SI 8,382. 70 


366 


Migratory Waterfowl; From motor boat; closed 




season; taking fully protected bird; using .22; late 














shootine' no license; earlv shootmc 








110 


3,375.00 




Moose: Calif, resident possessing meat on Montana 






















1 


100.00 




Mudhens: Closed season 


1 


50.00 






Muskrat" Closed season 


1 


13.00 










Non-Game Birds; Killing; possession, no license; 












30 


822.00 




14 


621.00 




Pheasants; Closed season; hen; from auto; trapping; 














spotlighting; failure to tag; illegal importation; 














no evidence of sex; no license; overlimit; unplugged 














gun; taking in cooperative area without permit; 














trespassing on cooperative hunting area; taking 














cock pheasant on refuge; using .22 rifle; failure 














to show on demand; transferred tag; shooting 














from public highway; overlimit 


278 


21,384.00 


164 


295 


15.572.50 


275 


Pigeons; Trapping; closed season; taking with rifle- 


41 


1,720.00 




6 


305.00 




Pine Marten; Closed season . 


1 


ino.oo 










Quai 1 ; Closed season ; from a uto ; with rifle ; trapping ; 














using .22 rifle; holding valley quail without per- 














mit; trespassing on restricted cooperative area; 














taking in game refuge; taking with illega' gun; 














failure to declare birds taken in Mexico; overIimit_ 


49 


2,550.00 




53 


2,700.00 


10 


Rabbits: Closed season; night hunting; in refuge; 














unplugged gun; snaring; no license; spotlighting; 














early shooting; shooting from car; possessing and 














transporting illegal game into Calif. 


102 


2,901.00 


50 


186 


5.697.00 




Sagehen: Possession 


2 

1 


185.00 
100.00 




4 


635.00 




Sea Otter; Possession of skins 




Shorebirds; Possession; killing; possessing curlew; 










taking snipe, plover, avocet, loon __ ,. 


18 


409.00 


10 


8 


225.00 




Squirrels; Killing gray squirrel; possession in closed 














season; possession tree squirrel; no license; illegal 














possession _.- •_ . _ _ ._ . __ 


16 


870.03 




19 


510.00 




Swan; Possession 


31 


1,918.00 




















Totals.. 


3,040 


S169,779.C0 


1,798 


2,505 


$132,645.20 


5,134 







49241 



8-51 4,500 



printed in California state printing office 





Date 


Due 




JA« li* '7 


J 




" 








































































































1 
















,j 



















Library Bureau Cat. Ho. 1137 




.'smaLfmf.^m 



Calif. Dept. of %t 



^Lui'Lil U fe isour -c e s 



Biennial Repox-t, Ulst, 19i4.8-50^_of 



the Division of Fish and Game. 



Division of Fish and Game of 
CaLifomia, 
41st Reports. 

1948-50